15 los cuentos larg os o de las novelas cortas. unica forma acaso en la que por mas que de ordinario despreciase, como Platon, a los poetas (Ill) Here oyendo a un famoso sexteto de inclitos profesores interpretar las. iniciativas tipo Sexteto do Beco e Os Tincoãs. E é dessa terra rica de ritmos e ofuscados por esses caras? “Chegaram os 'ordinários” e dominaram a cena. เฟลิกซ์ เมนเดิลส์โซห์น. မင်ဒယ်ဇုန်၊ ဂျေ၊ အယ်၊ အက်. 펠릭스 멘델스존. フェリックス・メンデルスゾーン. メンデルスゾーン. メンデルスゾーン, フェリックス. 菲歷士·.
kwansei.info .io/n/MX/el-debate//de-primer-periodo-ordinario-de-sesiones -una-idea-precisa-de-jazz-andr-s-hayes-toca-con-su-sexteto-en-la-usina-del-arte. Os dados obtidos através da análise das entrevistas serviram de guia para a para um sexteto (piano, acordeom, baixo, percussão e o duo, bandolim e violão). É uma combinação muito estranha de sons ordinários com os harmônicos. Poesía En Acción Taller Suárez Caamal [j0vmo5krne0x].
Os dados obtidos através da análise das entrevistas serviram de guia para a para um sexteto (piano, acordeom, baixo, percussão e o duo, bandolim e violão). É uma combinação muito estranha de sons ordinários com os harmônicos. iniciativas tipo Sexteto do Beco e Os Tincoãs. E é dessa terra rica de ritmos e ofuscados por esses caras? “Chegaram os 'ordinários” e dominaram a cena. เฟลิกซ์ เมนเดิลส์โซห์น. မင်ဒယ်ဇုန်၊ ဂျေ၊ အယ်၊ အက်. 펠릭스 멘델스존. フェリックス・メンデルスゾーン. メンデルスゾーン. メンデルスゾーン, フェリックス. 菲歷士·.
Print Send Add Share. The enigma of the 'varios Chapter 2. Juan Ruiz and the Larrian Chapter 3. Press, university, and Chapter 4. Galdos, naturalism, Chapter 5. Consecration of the Chapter 6. Transcendance as triumph Chapter 7. Conclusion: The evolution Bibliography Biographical sketch. D lcsh Genre: bibliography marcgt theses marcgt non-fiction marcgt.
Notes Thesis: Thesis Ph. Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references ordinarioss Additional Physical Form: Also available online.
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Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact the RDS coordinator ufdissertations uflib. Reinholtz V. Qu'un ami veritable est une douce chose! Il cherche vos besoins au fond de votre coeur, II vous 6pargne ls pudeur De les lui d6couvrir vous-m8me.
Howell and J. Victor McGlone, Ph. In addition, I would like setxeto offer very special ks to my godmother Sue Butler-Hannifin. Finally, I cannot even begin to express my gratitude to my parents, Theodore and Mary Reinholtz. While I will not miss their weekly inquiries on the progress of my dissertation, at the same time, I cannot conceive of having arrived at this point without their constant support.
Reinholtz December Chairman: Edward Baker Major Department: Romance Languages ordinarios Literatures The multiplicity of discursive practices found in the literary production of Leopoldo Alas "Clarin"--journalism, scholarship, political commentary, short story, novel, literary criticism, drama--has led to a scholarly debate over which of these "many Clarins" represents the writer's true professional inclination.
A possible solution to this problem is suggested in the reinterpretation of Alas's work within the framework of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu's concept of cultural production. Central to this theoretical model is the notion of the prise de position, or positiontaking: a discursive stance on the part of a writer in vii relation to the dynamics of the broader literary field with the purpose of resolving the conflicting principles of autonomy artistic consecration and heteronomy economic market success.
For Alas, this conflict may be framed as the desire to maintain a bourgeois existence from writing without becoming a "bourgeois writer". Given the shifting dynamics of the field caused by both sexteto artistic movements and external political and economic factors, the attempt at maintaining sedteto a balance would necessitate a constant process of re-creating the author in the Clarinian text. Each text is examined not as a reflection of historical reality, but rather following Jameson's model in The Political Unconscious as a symbolic resolution of the autonomous-heteronomous dialectic.
No entrar6 en el estudio integral del caricter literario de Clarin, como creador de obras tan bellas en distintos 6rdenes del arte y como infatigable luchador en el eterno critico. Ordinarios obra es grande y rica, y el que esto escribe no acertaria a encerrarla en una clara sintesis, por mucho empeno que en ello pusiera While ordianrios of and attitudes toward Alas have changed dramatically since Gald6s thus characterized his friend, the problematic presence of sexteto one, but what Guillermo de la Torre has called "varios Clarin"ixboth continues to fascinate and to frustrate critics of his work.
While Alas was known during his lifetime primarily as a literary critic, and during sexteto latter half of the twentieth century principally through his "masterpiece," La Regenta, his status as a writer continues to be redefined by modern scholarship which, in giving long1 overdue attention to the numerous other facets of his career, has increasingly complicated any attempt to understand the "many Clarins" as one. Indeed, the curious ordinaroos Clarin," as Antonio RamosGasc6n has put it, which has seen Alas elevated by "editores, criticos y leyentes" from "la segunda o tercera fila" to "la categorfa del mismisimo Cervantes"11has become something of a critical double-edged sword.
While the passion for rediscovering the writer's diversity has produced an unprecedented interest in the individual and his work, it would seem that little attention has been paid to the way in which the "many Clarins"--novelist, dramatist, conteur, literary critic, social commentator, political pundit, philosopher and scholar--might be comprehended in a cohesive fashion, finding the "clara sintesis" of which Gald6s spoke.
Although works such as Yvan Lissorgues's Clarin politico and Sergio Beser's Leopoldo Alas, critico literario represent invaluable contributions, in their recognition and dissemination of Alas's "nonliterary" texts, these studies must ultimately be understood, as Gonzalo Sobejano suggests in referring to Lissorgues as "el Col6n de la 'terra incognita' clariniana" 3 Lissorgues14as essentially bibliographical in nature, offering a point of departure rather than a definitive thesis.
Thus, it would seem that, if there is an unfulfilled task for Clarinian scholarship, it is to move from the rediscovery of "unknown" aspects of Clarin's production toward a reevaluation of their relationship with his oeuvre as a whole. In the following pages, I will offer one possibile strategy for approaching Beser's proposed critical goal, irdinarios perhaps for achieving the "synthesis" that Gald6s believed impossible.
If one were to ask what shared element exists between the sexteto principal discursive practices identified by Beser--"critical and creative"--the deceptively obvious answer would be the "author": obvious because Alas's personality has, since Cabezasbeen the focus of virtually all major scholarship on his work; deceptive because, as I will argue, it is not the author as subject, 4 but rather the author as object that may ultimately provide the key to unlocking the Clarinian hermeneutic.
While critics such as Luis Saavedra have followed Cabezas, conceiving of the "varios Clarin" within a psychological framework-- "la identidad literaria no coincid[e] muchas veces con la identidad intelectual"--this question of the author's "identity" must ultimately give way to one with much wider implications.
In Foucault's words, "new questions" must be asked: "'What are the modes of existence of this discourse? Ordinarios it is that I will undertake the study of the "author" not understood as Clarin, "the creator," but understood instead as that historically specific "complex and variable function of discourse" Foucaultwhose modern "identity" is sexteto be found for perhaps the first time in Spain--who is essentially "recreated"-- in the two essential narrative voices--"critical and creative"--of Leopoldo Alas.
In his essay "Authors and Writers" ,' Roland Barthes argues that, over the course of ogdinarios nineteenth 'Barthes's essay has been reprinted in translation in A Barthes Reader, Susan Sontag ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, For Barthes, what Foucault elsewhere terms the "author-function" Counter-Memorywas split into two coexistent "custodian[s] of the public language": the already institutionalized author and a new subject, the "writer" The distinction between the two--the author producing work as "its own end," that is, "intransitive", the writer as a "'transitive man' [who] posits a goal Indeed, as one considers the similarity between the Alas's career and that of Emile Zola--a key figure in Barthes's conceptualization this new evolving formation --the former, the most prominent Spanish apologist for "la mano sucia de la literatura" and its creator,2 seexteto to typify the transmutation of the traditional author.
Strikingly, the very concept of the "many Clarins" reflects 2Alas's ironic reference to Alarc6n's linking of Naturalism to anarchism begins his prologue to Emilia Pardo-Bazin's La cuesti6n palpitante Santiago de Compostela: Anthropos, : These would-be Zolas branch beyond artistic creation to "the university, krdinarios and scholarly research, politics etc As so many of Alas's biographers have observed, the struggle between an almost sacrosanct reverence for his role as an author-qu6 emoci6n tan sexteto eexteto para mi la de terminar However, if there is lrdinarios temptation on the sexteyo of traditonal Clarinian scholarship to grasp this dilemma in psychological terms, the present study will follow Barthes in suggesting 3Alas's celebrated statement on La Regenta is quoted, among other sources, in Adolfo Posada's Leopoldo Alas, "Clarin" Oviedo: Imprenta de la Cruz, : For the first time, the society as a consumer of texts can experience what Ordinarios calls "the dream of a communication without system" --a liberation ostensibly from "style," from the "parasitical message" of the author's discourse.
It is a model once distant and necessary, with which society plays something of a cat-and-mouse game: it acknowledges the author-writer by buying his books however fewrecognizing their public character; and at the same time it keeps him at a distance, obliging him to support himself by means of the subsidiary institutions it controls the university, for instanceconstantly accusing him of intellectualism, i.
In short, from an anthropological viewpoint, the author-writer is an excluded figure integrated by his very exclusion, a remote descendent of the accursed: his function ordinxrios society as a whole is perhaps related to the one L6vi-Strauss attributes to the witch doctor: a function of complimentarity, both ordinarios witch doctor and intellectual in a sense stabilizing a disease which is necessary to the collective economy of health Of course, just as the author-writer Emile Zola cannot be understood in the same way as the author-writer Roland Barthes, so Leopoldo Alas should not be comprehended in the same way as, for example, Juan Goytisolo.
Clearly individuals such as Zola and Alas must sexteto grasped as part of a gradual discursive realignment of the author-function within society--that is to say, as kinds of protointellectuals. Nonetheless, for Clarin and if not for Zola, certainly for his less successful protegesthe sexteto and economically dependent status of the author-writer's evolving identity can be viewed as the source of precisely the kind of oreinarios described by Cabezas and his other principal biographers.
Indeed, as Christophe Charle's study of the "crisis" of French naturalism suggests, much of the frustration apparently experienced by Alas ultimately must be seen as socio-economic in nature. Commenting on the explosion of writers in France during the second half of the nineteenth century, Charle states Les vocations nombreuses suscit6es par l'expansion de la presse et du public se heurtent bientit aux limites du march Statistical data seems to indicate that this phenomenon manifested itself in Spain as well.
Jean-Frangois Botrel sezteto figures on the decline of illiteracy and the growth in the number of bookstores in Spain from to Seexteto contrast, there was a veritable explosion of newspapers and other periodicals that took place with the reestablishment of ordinarios free press in And while Botrel's statistics do show that the number of individual publications had 10 returned to the mark by the turn of the century, Catalan scholar Josep-Francesc Valls points out that the number of copies printed in Spain had, from togone from under 10, to almostper day The result of these trends is not difficult to comprehend.
Ordinariios, while exact figures on the number of writers in Spain are unavailable, the census listed atthe number of bureaucrats, medicoss, jueces, artistas, profesores, etcetera" Avil6s Fernandez et al.
Echoing Barthes's idea of the author-writer, Schulte comments that from this labor crisis the concept of "professionalism" arose At the same ordinarios, a deceptive intellectual "independence" concealed a reality of economic servitude in which, as Barthes argues, od writer's ordinarios [was] Thus the author-writers of Restoration Spain found themselves in a seemingly inescapable socioeconomic dilemma.
While freed for the most part from the political and cultural constraints of traditional 11 authorship, they found themselves now subject eexteto a new set of limitations--those of a market of symbolic goods in which the growth of supply had, by the mids, far outstripped the expansion of consumer demand. Just as their French counterparts failed to attain both the critical and economic consecration of Zola, so on a smaller scale, Spain's Generation of '68 became increasing frustrated with a literary market that had difficulty supporting more than a few full-time novelists.
As literary historians Wlad Godzich oedinarios Nicholas Spadaccini observe, "The old institution, conceived by Enlightenment intellectuals Thus as late as one such individual, trapped between artistic freedom and economic necessity, would resign himself to the inevitable compromise: "No se leen libros, pero se empieza a leer peri6dicos: pues aprovechemos el sucedineo, y demos en el peri6dico, hasta donde se pueda, lo que habiamos de dar en 12 el libro" Beser That individual was, of course, Leopoldo Alas.
When these words appeared in La Publicidad, Clarin, already in the symptomatic stages of his eventually fatal intestinal tuberculosis Saavedra, was still one of the most respected and influential figures in Spanish letters. But if Saavedra is referring to the psychological implications of Alas's prodigious literary production "se mortifica por escribir demasiado" the real seexteto confronting not only Alas, but the rest sexteto his generation as well, resulted, as both Charle and Botrel suggest, from a very different, more palpable kind of crisis: the new economic reality of literature as a commodity and of the writer as its producer in the supply-and-demand market of the nineteenth century.
There sexetto exist numerous indications that Clarin was quite conscious of his own economic dependence and that of his contemporaries. In he wrote to Gald6s, "Yo no soy novelista ni nada; mds que un padre de familia 13 que no conoce otra industria mis que la de gacetillero transcendental" Ortega Although, as I have already discussed, virtually every biographer, following Cabezas, has at least made reference to this dilemma, thanks to the work of Botrel, Clarinistas have a much more precise idea of where Alas fit into the complex relations of literary production.
In his study, "Producci6n literaria y rentabilidad: el caso de Clarin," Botrel offers empirical data on Alas's production in terms of its exchange value. Botrel argues that with his decidedly bourgeois "necesidad de ganar el pan o el postre de sus hijos, segin las estrecheces del presupuesto dom6stico," Alas found himself "llevado a privilegiar las formas de producci6n de mayor rentabilidad para 61" By examining literary production in the same terms as other types of production in a capitalist economy such as that of Restoration Spain, Botrel offers a surprising picture of the reality of Clarin's work.
Calculating profitability per five hundred characters with regard to genre, he arrives at the following statistics: paliges at 4. And while Botrel makes it clear that Alas himself never made a conscious decision to reconcile aesthetics and economics,s he concludes that, caught between the "intereses globalmente opuestos" of "el creador y el productor"sexteto, the author of La Regenta and the paliques seemed to have adapted himself--albeit unknowingly-to a genre capable of satisfying, if only in part, both artistic desire and ordinarios necessity.
The situation described by Botrel as an "especie de desgarramiento" "Clarin no se conforma con su estatuto de escritor, pero su estatuto social se lo impone" [, ]seems not only to support Barthes's theory, but indeed suggests that the question of economic ordinarios in its most profound sense--the Marxian concept of "necessity"6-can and should be understood as an integral part of the Clarinian aesthetic.
Clearly some texts must be given primacy over others if the study it to be feasible. There is also the matter of determining a means of analyzing the signifiers that might reveal the conscious, or perhaps unconscious emergence of the "author-writer.
Soli e Coro Laudate pueri, op. Allegro moderato assai Laudate pueri, op. Wasserfahrt Lieder, men's voices, op. Comitat Lieder, mixed voices, op. MWV V Loraine, arr. MWV U E-dur Lieder ohne Worte Op. Fritz Kreisler: VI. Fruhlingslied Lieder ohne Worte, Op. Fritz Kreisler Lieder ohne Worte Op. Hirtenlied Lieder, op. Suleika Lieder, op. An die Entfernte Lieder, op. Schilflied Lieder, op. Gruss Lieder, voices 2 , piano, op. Akt love thee not, therefore pursue me not Sonntagslied Mendelssohns Lieder, S.
Reiselied Mendelssohns Lieder, S. Neue Liebe Mendelssohns Lieder, S. Fruhlingslied Mendelssohns Lieder, S. Winterlied Mendelssohns Lieder, S.
Overture, Op. Scherzo, Op. Nocturne, Op. Wedding March, Op. Dance of the Clowns, Op. Seleccions Musik Edition No. Extraits Musique de chambre. Extraits Musique instrumentale. Extraits Musique orchestrale. Extraits Musique pour orgue Musique pour violon et piano Musique pour violoncelle et piano. Allegro moderato ma con fuoco Octet for Strings in E-flat, op.
Andante Octet for Strings in E-flat, op. Scherzo: Allegro leggierissimo Octet for Strings in E-flat, op.
Allegro moderato, ma con fuoco Octet in E-flat major, op. Andante Octet in E-flat major, op. Scherzo: Allegro leggerissimo Octet in E-flat major, op. Scherzo - Allegro leggierissimo Octet in E-flat major, op. Presto Octet in Eb Major, Op. Allegro moderato, ma con fuoco Octet in Eb Major, Op.
Andante Octet in Eb Major, Op. Allegro leggierissimo Octet in Eb Major, Op. Allegro moderato Octet, violins 4 , violas, violoncellos, op. Allegro moderato, ma con fuoco Octuor Op. Andante Octuor Op. Allegro leggierissimo Octuor Op. Presto Octuors Cordes Op. Larsen Onkel aus Boston Op. Selections Orgelsonate in A-Dur, Op. Chor "Herr, der du bist der Gott" Paulus, Op. Chor "Mache dich auf! Chor "O welch eine Tiefe" Paulus, Op.
Chor "Siehe, wir preisen selig die erdultet haben" Paulus, Op. Choral "Wachet auf! Coro "Herr, der du bist der Gott" Paulus, Op. Coro "Mache dich auf, werde licht" Paulus, Op. Coro "Siehe, wir preisen selig, die erduldet haben" Paulus, Op. Vertilge sie" Paulus, Op. Recitativo "Und Ananias ging hin" Paulus, Op. Rezitativ "Und Ananias ging hin" Paulus, Op. Rezitativ "Und die Zeugen legten ab ihre Kleider" Paulus, op.
Chor "Herr! Der du bist der Gott" Paulus, op. Rezitativ "Und sie sahen auf ihn" Paulus, op. Arie "Jerusalem! Chor "Siehe! Wir preisen selig" Paulus, op. Rezitativ und Arioso "Und zog mit einer Schar" Paulus, op. Rezitativ mit Chor "Und als er auf dem Wege war" Paulus, op.
Kavatine "Sei getreu bis in den Tod" Paulus, op. Rezitativ "Paulus sandte hin" Paulus, op. Chor "Sehet, welche Liebe" Paulus, op. Rezitativ "Und wenn er gleich geopfert wird" Paulus, op. Schlusschor "Nicht aber ihm allein" Paulus, op. Rezitativ "Und Ananias ging hin" Paulus, op.
Chor "O welch eine Tiefe des Reichtums" Paulus, op. Chor "Der Erdkreis ist nun des Herrn" Paulus, op. Rezitativ "Und Paulus kam" Paulus, op. Duettino "So sind wir nun Botschafter" Paulus, op.
Chor "Wie lieblich sind die Boten" Paulus, op. Duett "Denn also hat uns der Herr geboten" Paulus, op. Rezitativ "Und sie alle verfolgten Paulus" Paulus, Op.
Cavatina "Sei getreu bis in den Tod" Paulus, Op. Cavatine "Sei getreu bis in den Tod" Paulus, Op. Chor "Sehet, welch eine Liebe" Paulus, Op.
Was machet ihr" Paulus, Op. Chor "Wie lieblich sind die Boten" Paulus, Op. Was machet Ihr" Paulus, Op. Coro "Nicht aber ihm allen, sondern allen" Paulus, Op. Coro "Wie lieblich sind die Boten" Paulus, Op. Duettino "So sind wir nun Botschafter" Paulus, Op. Duetto "Denn also hat uns der Herr geboten" Paulus, Op. Aber unser Gott ist im Himmel" Paulus, Op.
So spricht der Herr" Paulus, Op. Recitativo "Da ward das Volk erreget wider sie" Paulus, Op. Lasst uns singen von der Gnade Paulus, Op. Recitativo "Und sie alle verfolgten Paulus" Paulus, Op. Recitativo "Und wenn er gleich geopfert wird" Paulus, Op. Rezitativ "Da ward das Volk erreget wider sie" Paulus, Op.
Rezitativ "Paulus aber und Barnabas sprachen" Paulus, Op. Rezitativ "Paulus sandte hin" Paulus, Op. Rezitativ und Arioso "Und wie sie ausgesandt" Paulus, Op. Rezitativ "Und wenn er gleich geopfert wird" Paulus, Op.
Selections Paulus St. Jerusalem, die du todtest die Propheten Soprano Paulus St. Der du bist der Gott Chorus Paulus St. Chorus Paulus St. Presto Piano Concerto in A minor: I. Allegro ma non troppo- Allegro molto vivace Piano Concerto no. Molto allegro con fuoco Piano Concerto no. Adagio Piano Concerto no. Andante Piano Concerto no. Presto - Molto allegro e vivace Piano Concerto no. Allegro appassionato Piano Concerto no. Molto sostenuto Piano Concerto no. Selections Piano Quartet no.
Allegro vivace Piano Quartet no. Adagio Piano Quartet no. Scherzo Piano Quartet no. Allegro moderato Piano Quartet No. Scherzo, Presto Piano Quartet No. Allegro molto vivace Piano Quartet no. Scherzo: Allegro molto Piano Quartet no. Allegro vivace Piano Sextet in D, op. Adagio Piano Sextet in D, op. Menuetto Piano Sextet in D, op. Menuetto, Agitato Piano Sonata in B flat, op. Allegro vivace Piano Trio No. Molto allegro ed agitato Piano Trio No. Andante con moto tranquillo Piano Trio No.
Leggiero e vivace Piano Trio No. Allegro assai appassionato Piano Trio No. Allegro energico e con fuoco Piano Trio No. Andante espressivo Piano Trio No. Molto allegro quasi presto Piano Trio No. Allegro appassionato Piano Trio Op. Venetianisches Gondellied Pilgerspruch, op. Allegro con fuoco Praeludium und Fuge op. Andante espressivo Praeludium und Fuge op. Allegretto Praeludium und Fuge op. Tranquillo e sempre legato Praeludium und Fuge op.
Prestissimo staccato Praeludium und Fuge op. Allegro con brio Praeludium und Fuge op. Con moto Praeludium und Fuge op. Con moto, ma sostenuto Praeludium und Fuge op. Andante lento Praeludium und Fuge op. Maestoso moderato Praeludium und Fuge op. Con moto Prelude and Fugue in A-flat major, op. Con moto, ma sostenuto Prelude and Fugue in B-flat major, op. Maestoso moderato Prelude and Fugue in B-flat major, op.
Allegro con brio Prelude and Fugue in B minor, op. Prestissimo staccato Prelude and Fugue in B minor, op. Allegro con brio Prelude and Fugue in C minor, op. Fugue Prelude and Fugue in D major, op. Allegretto Prelude and Fugue in D major, op. Tranquillo e sempre legato Prelude and Fugue in D minor, op. Fugue Prelude and Fugue in E minor, op.
Allegro con fuoco Prelude and Fugue in E minor, op. Andante lento Prelude and Fugue in F minor, op. Allegro con fuoco Prelude and Fugue in G major, op.
Fugue Prelude in B-flat major, op. Chorus, "Wie der Hirsch schreit" Psalm 42, op. Adagio - Allegro vivace Quartet No. Adagio non lento Quartet No. Allegretto con moto - Allegro di molto Quartet No. Presto - Adagio non lento Quartet - "O come, everyone that thirsteth" Quartet: Recitative - "The deep affords no water" Quartets, piano, violin, viola, cello, no.
Molto allegro vivace Quartets, violins 2 , viola, cello. Allegro molto Quatuors, cordes, no 1, op. Extraits Quatuors, violons 2 , alto, violoncelle, no 3, op. Allegro con moto Quintet for Strings no. Intermezzo: Andante sostenuto Quintet for Strings no. Scherzo: Allegro di molto Quintet for Strings no. Allegro vivace Quintet for Strings no. Andante scherzando Quintet for Strings no. Adagio e lento Quintet for Strings no.
Allegro molto vivace Quintet no. Allegro vivace Quintet no. Andante scherzando Quintet no. Adagio e lento Quintet no. Allegro molto vivace Quintetos violines, violas, violonchelo, n.
Denn er ist ja Gott" Rezitativ Elias : "Rufet lauter! Denn er ist ja Gott! Rufet lauter! Ruherthal, op. Kwartet smyczkowy. Entflieh' mit mir Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, Op. Mailied Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, Op. Lerchengesang Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, Op. Morgengebet Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, Op. Herbstlied Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, op. Die Primel Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, op.
Lerchengesang Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, op. Morgengebet Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, op. Herbstlied Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, Op. Ruhetal Sechs Lieder im Freien zu singen, Op.
Jagdlied Sechs Lieder, Op. Neujahrslied Sechs Lieder, Op. Hirtenlied Sechs Lieder, Op. Deutschland Sechs Lieder, Op. Allegro molto Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Scherzo Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Adagio Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Allegro Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Andante Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Allegro di moto Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Allegro vivace Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Presto Sinfonia for String Orchestra No.
Menuetto Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Prestissimo Sinfonia for String Orchestra No. Allegretto un poco agitato Sinfonie No. Adagio religioso Sinfonie No. Rezitativ Tenor Sinfonie No. Allegro moderato Tenor Sinfonie No.
A tempo moderato Chor Sinfonie No. Andante sostenuto assai Tenor, Sopran Sinfonie No. Allegro un poco agatito Tenor, Sopran Sinfonie No. Allegro maestoso e molto vivace Chor Sinfonie No. Andante con moto Chor Sinfonie No.
Allegro non troppo Chor Sinfonie No. Satz Sinfonien op. So wahr der Herr, der Gott Israels, lebet. So wahr der Herr Zebaoth lebet Sogno di una notte di mezza estate: Danza dei clowns Sogno di una notte di mezza estate: Marcia nuziale Sogno di una notte di mezza estate: Notturno Sogno di una notte di mezza estate: Ouverture Sogno di una notte di mezza estate: Scherzo Sommerlied, op.
Allegro di molto, Ein Sommernachtstraum Op. Allegro ma non troppo, Ein Sommernachtstraum Op. Con moto maestoso Sonata A-Dur, op. Andante tranquillo Sonata B-Dur, op. Allegro con brio Sonata B-Dur, op.
Andante religioso Sonata B-Dur, op. Allegretto Sonata B-Dur, op. Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonata c-Moll, op. Fuga Allegro moderato Sonata D-Dur, op. Andante Sonata D-Dur, op. Andante con moto Sonata D-Dur, op. Finale Andante Sonata f-Moll, op. Allegro moderato e serioso Sonata f-Moll, op. Adagio Sonata f-Moll, op. Andante Sonata f-Moll, op. Allegro moderato Sonata for Piano in B-flat, op. Presto Sonata for Violin and Piano in F minor, op. Poco adagio Sonata for Violin and Piano in F minor, op.
Andante tranquillo Sonata in B-flat major, op. Allegro moderato Sonata in B flat major Op. Allegro non troppo Sonata in B flat major Op. Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonata in C minor, op.
Fuga Sonata in D minor, op. Finale Sonata in D, op. Allegro moderato Sonata in E major, op. Allegretto con espressione Sonata in E major, op. Tempo di menuetto Sonata in E major, op. Adagio e senza tempo Sonata in E major, op.
Assai vivace Sonata in F minor, op. Allegro assai vivace Sonata in G minor, op. Allegro Sonata in G minor, op. Adagio Sonata in G minor, op. Allegro moderato e serioso Sonata no. Adagio Sonata no. Andante Sonata no. Allegro assai vivace Sonata no. Andante Recitative Sonata No. Recitativo Sonata no. Grave Sonata no.
Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonata no. Fugue: Allegro moderato Sonata No. Con moto maestoso Sonata no. Andante tranquillo Sonata no. Allegro con brio Sonata no.
Andante religioso Sonata no. Allegretto Sonata no. Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonata No. Andante - Andante con moto Sonata no. Allegro maestoso Sonata No. Andante con moto Sonata No. Chorale and Variations — Chorale Sonata No. Andante sostenuto Sonata No. Chorale and Variations — Var 2 Sonata No. Chorale and Variations — Var 3 Sonata No. Chorale and Variations — Var 4. Allegro molto Sonata no. Fugue: Sostenuto e legato Sonata no. Finale: Andante Sonata no. Andante Sonatas, organ, op. Adagio Sonatas, piano, op.
Allegro moderato e serioso Sonate 1 in F-moll: II. Allegro assai vivace Sonate 2 in C-moll: I. Fuga: Allegro moderato Sonate 3 in A-dur: I. Con moto maestoso Sonate 3 in A-dur: II. Andante tranquillo Sonate 4 in B-dur: I. Allegro con brio Sonate 4 in B-dur: II. Allegretto Sonate 4 in B-dur: IV. Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonate 5 in D-dur: I. Andante Sonate 5 in D-dur: II. Andante con moto Sonate 5 in D-dur.
Allegro maestoso Sonate 6 in D-moll: I. Choral Sonate 6 in D-moll: II. Finale: Andante Sonate A-Dur, op. Con moto maestoso Sonate A-Dur, op. Andante tranquillo Sonate B-Dur op. Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonate B-Dur, op. Allegro con brio Sonate B-Dur, op. Andante religioso Sonate B-Dur, op.
Allegretto Sonate B-Dur, op. Allegro maestoso Sonate C-moll, op. Adagio Sonate C-moll, op. Allegro maestoso e vivace Sonate C-moll, op. Allegro moderato Sonate D-Dur op. Allegro maestoso Sonate D-Dur, op. Andante Sonate D-Dur, op. Andante con moto Sonate D-Dur, op. Allegro Sonate d-moll op. Andante sostenuto Sonate d-moll op. Allegro molto Sonate d-moll op. Sostenuto e legato Sonate d-moll op.
Andante Sonate d-Moll, op. Fuge Sonate d-Moll, op. Andante Sonate es-dur-adagio Sonate f-moll op. Allegro assai vivace Sonate f-Moll, op. Allegro moderato e serioso Sonate f-Moll, op. Adagio Sonate f-Moll, op. Satz Sonaten Org op. E-dur Sonaty. Allegro molto Sonaty. Skrzypce, fortepian. Wiolonczela, fortepian. Paul, op. Stay though thou kill me, sweet Demetrius Stehe auf, Elias Sterne schau'n in stiller Nacht Op.
Presto String Quartet in E-flat major: I. Fuga String quartet music. Selections String Quartet no. Adagio non troppo — Allegro non tardante String Quartet no. Andante espressivo String Quartet no. Molto allegro e vivace String Quartet no. Adagio — Allegro vivace String Quartet no. Adagio non lento String Quartet no.
Allegretto con moto — Allegro di molto String Quartet no. Presto — Adagio non lento String Quartet no. Molto allegro vivace String Quartet no. Un poco allegretto String Quartet No. Un poco allegro String Quartet no. Andante espressivo ma con moto String Quartet no.
Presto con brio String Quartet No. Allegro assai appasionato String Quartet no. Allegro assai appassionato String Quartet no. Allegro di molto String Quartet no. Andante String Quartet no. Presto agitato String Quartet no. Allegro vivace String Quartet no. Assaileggiero vivace String Quartet no. Adagio non troppo String Quartet no. Molto allegro con fuoco String Quartet no.
Allegro vivace assai String Quartet no. Allegro assai String Quartet no. Adagio String Quartet no. Allegro molto String Quartet Op. Allegro con moto String Quintet no. Intermezzo: Andante sostenuto String Quintet no. Scherzo: Allegro di molto String Quintet no. Allegro vivace String Quintet no. Andante scherzando String Quintet no. Adagio e lento String Quintet no. Allegro molto vivace String Quintets No.
Allegro molto String Symphonie no. Commodo Schweizerlied String Symphonie no. Adagio String Symphonie no. Allegro moderato String Symphonie no.
Allegro molto String Symphony no. Allegro String Symphony no. Andante String Symphony no. Grave - Allegro String Symphony no. Allegro vivace String Symphony no. Allegro di molto String Symphony no. Grave — Allegro String Symphony no. Presto String Symphony no. Menueto String Symphony no. Prestissimo String Symphony no. Andante amorevole String Symphony no. Menuetto String Symphony no. Adagio e grave - Allegro String Symphony no. Adagio String Symphony no. Allegro maestoso in D Study in A minor, op.
Marcha Nupcial Suita "Sen nocy letniej": I. Overture Suita "Sen nocy letniej": II. Nocturne Suita "Sen nocy letniej": IV. Dance Suita "Sen nocy letniej": V.
Scherzo Suita "Sen nocy letniej": VI. Sweet Remembrance Symfoni, nr 2, op. MWV N Con moto moderato Symfonie. Orkiestra smyczkowa. MWV N Symfonie. F-dur Symfonie. MWV N 7. MWV N 9. C-dur Symfonie. Presto Symphonie No. Allegro Symphonie Nr.
Sinfonia: I. Maestoso con moto Symphonie Nr. Sinfonia: II. Allegretto un poco agitato Symphonie Nr. Sinfonia: III. Adagio religioso Symphonie Nr. Allegro moderato maestoso - Allegro di molto Symphonie Nr. Cantate: II. Recitativo Symphonie Nr. Allegro moderato Symphonie Nr.
A tempo moderato Symphonie Nr. Andante Symphonie Nr. Allegro maestoso e molto vivace Symphonie Nr. Andante sostenuto assai Symphonie Nr. Allegro vivace Symphonie Nr. Allegro vivace Symphonies, no 4, op. Andante Symphonies, no. Choral Symphonies Nos. Menuetto: Con moto grazioso Symphony in D major, No. Allegro di molto Symphony no.
Molto allegro et vivace Symphony no. Andante con moto Symphony no. Intermezzo Symphony no. Allegro molto Symphony No. Allegro Molto Symphony no. Allegro con fuoco Symphony no. Finale, allegro vivace Symphony no. Adagio Symphony No. Allegro Symphony No. Adagio - Allegro molto Symphony No. Scherzo commodo Schweizerlied Symphony No. Menuetto - Allegro moderato Symphony No. Allegro molto Symphony no. Fuga: Grave - Allegro Symphony no. Andante Symphony no. Sinfonia: Adagio religioso Symphony No.
Sinfonia: Allegretto un poco agitato Symphony No. Sinfonia: Maestoso con moto - Allegro Symphony No. Chorus and Soprano Symphony No. Tenor [recitative] Symphony No. Chorus Symphony No. Tenor and Soprano Symphony No.
Tenor Symphony No. Chorale Symphony No. Adagio religioso Symphony No. Allegretto un poco agitato Symphony No. Allegro moderato maestoso Symphony No. Molto piu vivo ma con fuoco Symphony No. Allegro moderato Symphony No. Recitative Symphony No. A tempo moderato Symphony No. Andante Symphony No. Allegro un poco agitato Symphony No. Allegro maestoso e molto vivace Symphony No. Choral: Andante con moto Symphony No. Schlusschor: Allegro non troppo Symphony No.
Andante sistenuto assai Symphony no. Sinfonia Symphony no. Sinfonia: Maestoso con moto — Allegro Symphony no. Sinfonia: Allegretto un poco agitato Symphony no. Sinfonia: Adagio religioso Symphony no. Allegro moderato maestoso Chorus Symphony No. Recitativo Chorus Symphony No. Allegro moderato Tenor Symphony No. A tempo moderato Chorus Symphony No.
Allegro maestoso e molto vivace Chorus Symphony No. Chorale: Andante con moto Chorus Symphony No. Final Chorus: Allegro non troppo Chorus Symphony no. Allegro Symphony no. Allegro vivace Symphony no. Soprano e Tenor: Drum sing ich mit meinem Liede Symphony no.
Solo e Coro: Ich harrete des Herrn Symphony no. Coro: Die Nacht ist vergangen Symphony no. Coro: Nun danket alle Gott Symphony no. Andante con moto - Allegro un poco agitato Symphony No. Vivace non troppo Symphony No.
Allegro vivacissimo - Allegro maestoso assai Symphony no. Allegro un poco agitato Symphony no. Vivace non troppo Symphony no. Adagio Symphony no. Allegro vivacissimo Symphony No. Allegro vivace Symphony No. Andante con moto - Allegro un poco agitato - Allegro un poco agitato Symphony No.
Allegro maestoso assai Symphony no. Andante con moto Symphony No. Con moto moderato Symphony No. Saltarello Presto Symphony No. Saltarello presto Symphony No. Con moto moderato Symphony no. Con moto grazioso Symphony no. Presto From "Breaking Away" Symphony no.
Grave - Allegro Symphony no. Presto extract Symphony no. Presto Symphony no. Andante - Allegro con fuoco Symphony no. Introduction and Allegro con fuoco Symphony no. Andante and Finale Symphony No. Andante - Attacca Symphony No.
Andante attacca Symphony no. Choral "Eine Feste Burg" Symphony no. Menuetto Symphony no. Adagio e Grave - Allegro Symphony No. Menuetto Symphony No. Unplayable sections Compositional suggestions Idiomatic sections For guitar Alternative suggestions to playable sections Look back session Interview guide for interviewing non-guitarist composers Interview guide for interviewing guitarists Categories ordered by frequency Number of respondents in each category Categories ordered by frequency composers and performers separated Graph of occurrences: adaptation of non-idiomatic sections Graph of occurrences: communication strategies Graph of occurrences: composition for guitar by non-guitarist composers Graph of occurrences: promoting the creation of new works Graph of occurrences: corrections of unplayable sections Graph of occurrences: collaboration modalities Graph of occurrences: later revisions Graph of occurrences: differences between interacting with guitarist composers and non-guitarist composers Appassionata by Ronaldo Miranda — uncomfortable chord in high position Appassionata by Ronaldo Miranda - chord in high position - Fabio Zanon's suggestion Tocata by Pauxy Gentil-Nunes — Beginning of the arpeggio section Tocata by Pauxy Gentil-Nunes — Non-idiomatic arpeggio pattern Portais e a abside by Celso Loureiro Chaves - overcomplicated position shift 85 Figure Appassionata by Ronaldo Miranda - transposing one note one octave up Appassionata by Ronaldo Miranda - unsustainable note Passacalha para Fred Schneiter by Edino Krieger - slow tremolo Fantaisie on Hungarian Themes by Johann Dubez - five notes on the tremolo line Tocata by Pauxy Gentil-Nunes - movable chords Appassionata by Ronaldo Miranda - movable chords Passacalha para Fred Schneiter by Edino Krieger - movable chords combined with open strings Tocata by Pauxy Gentil-Nunes - harmonics combined with regular notes Portais e a abside by Celso Loureiro Chaves - harmonics combined with notes played by the left hand only Video coding using HyperResearch Groups: graph of occurrences Graph of occurrences: combining "non-idiomatic sections" and "alternative solutions to unplayable sections" Codes: Graph of occurrences Bream , p.
Increasing chord range by using an open string in the bass Possible chords in first position Possible, but uncomfortable left-hand position Transposing inner notes of chords in one octave Complete list of complementary notes Schneider, , p. Feasible guitar natural harmonics Godfrey, , p. La espiral eterna by Leo Brouwer: glissando with the nail Sonata for guitar, op.
Sonata by Alterto Ginastera: tambora on six strings Church on the water by Tadao Ando Feasible chord, but with an issue regarding the harmonic appoggiatura Fingering for the chord originally written by Samuel Alternative version Second chord in tambora Small break between the two marked tempi Changing the note B to harmonic in order to avoid the break caused by the position shift Artificial harmonic in the second draft of After Ando's church on the water Connecting sonorities The interval of minor second transposed one octave below Unplayable chord Fingering with a bar covering two frets First alternative to solve the impossible chord — with the elimination of the interval of minor second Second alternative to solve the impossible chord - breaking the chord into two parts Samuel's new suggestion Preludio n.
Adding a grace note after the glissando Second draft - one note added to the first chord Alternatives that allow maintaining the newly added note Longer breath mark due to the finger disposition required by the change from one chord to another Adding a harmonic to allow for an easier chord change and, consequently, a shorter breath mark Adding a bass note between harmonics Rhythmic suggestions for the opening section of After Ando's church on the water First draft: opening section Unplayable chord with the written fingering Correct fingering for the first chord Resulting hand position No precise durations indicated Fifth collaboration session: working on 54 toys Complex extensions for the left hand First alternative: reducing the bass notes to semiquaver Second alternative: cutting an inner note Unconvincing sonority Adding notes to obtain a stronger sonority Non-idiomatic arpeggio pattern in the first draft score Idiomatic alternative presented to Samuel Arpeggio — final version Position shift breaking the arpeggio into two parts Alternative version with no position shift Misplaced harmonic in the melodic line — third draft of 54 toys Substituting the harmonic for a regular note Four-note slur Separating the four-note slur into two groups of two-note slur Addition of slurs Adding a glissando Third section of the first draft Alternative version with harmonics New section in the third draft of 54 toys — Samuel's original idea Denser polyphonic structure Final version slightly changed Unsustainable notes in the chord — standard type of fingering Unsustainable notes in the chord — alternative fingering Reducing the upper notes' duration to a semiquaver Bass impossible to sustain Reducing the bass' duration Eliminating an inner note Unsustainable notes in the chord Reducing the chord's duration Transposing an inner note one octave up Natural harmonic: Impossible to overlap the marked notes Alternative to allow for the overlap of sonorities: transposing the harmonic one octave up Artificial harmonic: overlapping notes is now possible Beginning of 54 toys — second draft Adding one more measure to the piece's second draft Bass line added to Samuel's original New measure added to the final version Changing the repeated note Eighth collaboration session: working on For guitar Harmonic: right-hand tapping indicated with a triangle Substituting the triangle to lozenge Non-idiomatic percussion pattern For guitar: indication of percussive effects Substituting non-idiomatic percussive effects Opening section — alternating real notes, harmonics and bi-tones Final section — alternating real notes, harmonics and bi-tones Percussive section Use of indeterminacy Look back session: discussing the entire project List of musicians who fitted the research criteria Interviewed musicians Dates and formats of the interviews Synopsis of the interviews — sample table Excerpt from the synopsis of the interviews — eighth category Selected repertoire List of recitals Sessions dates and topics Groups and codes organised by number of occurrences List of codes and groups associated with the sessions on After Ando's church on the water List of codes and groups in 54 toys List of codes and groups in For guitar These definitions have similarities that converge to a central point: blending thoughts and ideas through a process of sharing complementary knowledge.
Collaboration of this nature has attracted the attention of several researchers in recent years. Both authors discuss aspects of the new relation between composer and performer. Although this approach is recent as an area of research, it is not recent to musical practice, since there are well-known famous cases of collaboration: Johannes Brahms — Joseph Joachim Schwarz, in the nineteenth century, for example. Thus, performers were considered mere reproducers of a musical composition that should be understood in print.
In other words, a musical composition should, ideally, speak for itself. The view of the performer as a reproducer has changed in the last sixty years as composers and performers have been working in collaboration more often Domenici, , p.
Moreover, collaboration requires non-hierarchical attitudes: in western classical music, composers and performers have traditionally operated in separate domains, with an artistic hierarchy typically placing composers above performers. This separation, brought about by cultural heritage, poses challenges for collaborative engagement between these musicians, since collaboration by definition invites non-hierarchical attitudes and practices.
Roe, , pp. Now there exists a whole new school of performers who, not content with merely reproducing after the event, as it were, are playing an active part in the development of new music. I feel certain that it is in the nurturing of this relationship that the core of future developments in music will lie.
Domenici examines collaborative practice mediated by notation in contemporary art music. The author does not discuss any collaboration cases in particular, but brings new ideas to the research area by discussing the problem of a collaboration mediated only by notation and by the dynamics of collaborative practice. Domenici examines the vertical model of the composer-performer relation underpinned by the rigidity of pre-established roles — as opposed to a horizontal model in which roles are negotiated and shared.
In a similar approach, Ray presents a trajectory of composer-performer collaborations in the last sixty years and discusses the perspectives for this area in the twenty-first century.
The author confronts intuitive and carefully planned collaborations, concluding that in the twenty-first century composer and performer collaborations tend to be more sophisticated and well informed. According to Ray , a high degree of expertise in the areas of composition and performance separated the roles of composer and performer. Hence, the development of extended techniques and even the creation of new manners of instrumental playing are directly linked to the close relation of composers specialized in composition and performers specialized in performance.
Nowadays, the fact that musicians rarely develop an expertise in both virtually requires that innovation relies on collaboration. Ray, , p. It includes collaboration in chamber music repertoire, addressing varied instrumental formations Barrett et al.
In this literature, however, authors rarely address issues related to collaborations in which the composers do not play the instrument they are composing for. Except for Ivanovic , the above-mentioned authors do not address issues regarding composition for guitar by non-guitarist composers.
Berlioz  explained that it is difficult for a non-guitarist composer to write high quality music for solo guitar.
His statement has been corroborated by testimonials by several non-guitarist composers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries Dodgson, ; Bennett, ; Ginastera, ; Miranda, ; Tacuchian, Despite its relevance, this bibliography rarely addresses issues about collaboration, since it mostly intends to explain the characteristics, potentialities and limitations of the guitar. From my previous collaborative experiences, I developed a personal point of view that was mainly based on intuition.
Therefore, a thorough investigation involving analysis of collaborations held by other musicians as well as my own experience working with a non- guitarist composer would help in my endeavour to find an answer to these questions. This list was elaborated with the intention of addressing both the outcomes and the process of engagement in collaborative work with a non-guitarist composer.
Moreover, following these aims would allow me to understand the compositional process of non-guitarist composers, the problems they faced when writing for guitar and the resources available, and the characteristics and subtleties of joint work in music.
The first stage was developed taking into account concepts and procedures from grounded theory Creswell, , which is a relevant methodology that helps to organise a framework for the research.
This research, however, focuses on a type of collaboration that is limited to a specific context: collaboration between non- guitarist composers and guitarists; and one specific instrument: the guitar. Therefore, the analysis of collaboration processes in this context — with participants who have significant experience in the process — allows for the identification and classification of several patterns, providing a framework for this project.
Therefore, this procedure helped to organise and conduct the second stage of this project: the collaborative work. It was guided by strategies that were designed from the results obtained from the exploratory stage, grounding the collaborative work on a thorough study of collaborative processes held by expert musicians, avoiding as much as possible personal biases and expectations.
Such assessment of the process is a marked aspect of a phenomenological methodology. Hence, this stage consisted of fourteen interviews with six non-guitarist composers and eight guitarists, and also included analysis and performances of selected works by the participants.
Participants are active Brazilian non-guitarist composers who published works for solo guitar involving collaboration with performers, as well as the performers who collaborated with them. It is worth mentioning that, although composers Dimitri Cervo and Caio Senna have written well- known works for solo guitar, their works for the instrument were not published, and were therefore not included in this research project.
The criteria for selecting participants addressed the geographic context in which I am immersed and familiarised with — which is the same context of the composer Samuel Peruzzolo-Vieira, with whom I worked during the second stage of this research. Thus, the decision to dedicate this project entirely to Brazilian repertoire was a direct consequence of the methodological choices. In addition, Brazilian composers have a significant historical importance and prominence when it comes to guitar repertoire.
Heitor Villa-Lobos is acknowledged as one of the most inventive Brazilian composers. In summary, this list demonstrates that the most important Brazilian non-guitarist composers have dedicated works to the guitar. Moreover, authors unanimously acknowledge these works as significant contributions to the repertoire. The intention was to work with only one composer and help him to write as much as possible for solo guitar within a predetermined period of time.
The idea was to avoid the typical situation in which non- guitarist composers write only one solo piece for the instrument and never again repeat the experience e. Alberto Ginastera, who wrote only the Sonata for solo guitar. Samuel wrote O quarto fechado for solo guitar, in collaboration with me, in However, we did not keep a register of our collaboration, despite the fact that two draft scores and a fair copy of the final version document the joint work.
Therefore, several aspects of the developed work were lost, which does not allow a detailed discussion. This collaboration project, nonetheless, encouraged Samuel to write for solo guitar again, seven years after his first experience.
During this stage, nine collaborative sessions were held between December and September These sessions were documented on video, which was used for data analysis, and also served as a multimedia support that helped Samuel during the compositional process. Obtained data was analysed using the software HyperResearch, in which the recorded videos were coded and categorised into five groups according to data correlation.
Finally, the appendix section includes the interview guides elaborated in the exploratory stage, the transcription of the interviews, and all drafts and final version of each commissioned piece. At the end of the section, a discussion summarising and confronting the analysed concepts and subjects is presented.
Therefore, when discussing collaboration, concepts of authorship constitute a relevant aspect. Within the field of literary studies, authorial concepts have been intensely debated. During the twentieth century, discussions about the author concept — which can be transposed to other areas that involve creation and creativity — underwent a perspective shift, questioning the figure of the author.
His significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists. In other words, since the language is pre-existing, the writer will never be original.
The ideas above lead to the conclusion that every work — whether a book, an essay, a musical composition, a painting, a sculpture and so forth — is socially constructed and not single authored. In other words, the socially-constructed feature of every work has an inherent collective basis of some type. Inge summarises these ideas stating that all texts produced by authors are not the products of individual creators. Rather, they are the result of any number of discourses that take place among the writer, the political and social environments in which the writing occurs, the aesthetic and economic pressures that encourage the process, the psychological and emotional state of the writer, and the reader who is expected to receive or consume the end product when it reaches print.
Even if not intended for an audience or the publishing marketplace, a piece of writing cannot escape the numerous influences that produce it. All discourse is socially constructed. Moreover, Hirsch Jr. Stillinger discuss the concept of multiple authorship, considering that all collaborators, revisers, editors are also authors, since their contribution affects and shapes the final product.
Also acknowledging multiple authorship, Hirschfeld explains that there should be a different word to designate a shared writing when two authors collaborate in a substantial and deliberate joint effort towards the creation of a work: future criticism must find another word to describe the relation and experience of authorship by two writers who contribute, calculatedly, to the same text.
As scholars note, in the earlier periods such authorship occurred most frequently in the drama, where collaboration involved not only emendation or revision but also substantial and deliberate sharing of pieces of a whole, and supposedly coherent, fiction.
This kind of enterprise, and the understanding and experience of authorship it entails, seems fundamentally different from kinds of collaboration more loosely construed, whether they are advice from a masque patron or a chunk of chronicle history. These modes indeed challenge Romantic notions of the author, by subjecting the author to constraints and conditions. But if we are going to use collaboration to refer to the host of activities that support literary production, we will need a new term to designate shared writing.
Just as it would be unthinkable for a visitor to an art museum to admire a roomful of paintings without knowing the names of the individual painters and for a concertgoer to sit through a program of symphonies and concertos without knowing the names of the individual composers, so it is impossible to imagine any presentation of writings even of writings in which Barthes and Foucault contest the existence of authors!
Stillinger, , p. The disappearance of the author as an individual, as discussed by Barthes  and Foucault  , generated a perspective shift. Although influential, both essays were contested by several authors. Even acknowledging all points of view in this debate, the figure of the author is deeply ingrained in our culture and, therefore, persists to the present day.
Collaborative patterns Even though the discussion on concepts of authorship usually does not address collaboration patterns, some researchers have addressed the topic. According to John- Steiner , pp. However, it can be applied to collaboration in music.
However, the second and the third collaborative patterns complementarity collaboration and family collaboration refer precisely to the kind of collaborative work described by the authors mentioned above. Regarding complementarity collaboration, John-Steiner defines it as the most widely practiced form. It is characterized by a division of labor based on complementary expertise, disciplinary knowledge, roles, and temperament.
This is particularly true when the collaboration involves complementarity in scientific fields or in art forms. Furthermore, collaborations where composer and performer switch roles occur often. This aspect characterises a family collaboration, described by John-Steiner as a mode of interaction in which roles are flexible or may change over time.
As in a family, members can take over for each other while still using their complementarity. These groups or pairs tend to be committed to each other for a long time. In the first category there is a clear hierarchy between composer and performer, in which the composer aims to determine the performance through the score.
The second category involves a more direct negotiation between composers and performers. Nonetheless, the composer is still the author. The third category prioritises a collective decision-making process. In this category there is no singular author or hierarchy of roles. As explained by the authors, some projects can contain aspects of more than one category, which makes this categorisation more flexible.
Moreover, this categorisation fits better collaborations towards the creation of an interpretation than collaborations during the compositional process. Review of research publications on composer and performer collaboration Regarding publications on composer and performer collaboration, there is a vast bibliography addressing concrete cases of collaboration, mostly from the viewpoint of the participants.
Collaboration in chamber music repertoire There is a small number of publications about collaboration in a chamber music context. Authors like Barrett et al. Barrett et al. The authors analyse aspects related to the commission, composition, rehearsals, performance and, finally, the recording.
Although both Barrett et al. However, their focus lies in the creation of an interpretation, which will be discussed later in a specific section. These authors, however, discuss collaborations in a context of solo music as well. Budai also addresses collaborations in chamber and solo music, but analyses collaborations that do not include her as participant.
She classifies collaborations into six types, which take into account the amount and kind of influence the performer has on the music. The research is dedicated to music for flute, and the analysed repertoire includes music for one to four flutes, flute and orchestra, and flute and piano.
The discussion is based on score analysis and interviews with ten composers and seven performers from Hungary pieces by three flutist-composers are also analysed. McGregor focuses on the flute repertoire as well, addressing his collaboration with three Canadian composers: Jeffrey Ryan, James Beckwith Maxwell and Jocelyn Morlock, in two works for solo flute and one for flute, percussion and piano.
The author also discusses the contributions of two other flutists in the creation of new works during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries: the collaboration between the flutist Severino Gazzelloni and the composers Luciano Berio and Kazuo Fukushima, and the collaboration between the flutist Robert Aitken and the composers John Cage, George Crumb and Elliot Carter.
The discussion about the collaborative processes includes aspects of both interpretation and adaptation of the pieces. The author mentions that the written part of his thesis is not the main focus of his research, but a contribution, with new ideas, to the research area. Their paper presents an analysis of excerpts from the piece in which the collaboration was more evident. The authors discuss the collaboration during the composition process, mentioning the resulting adaptations from the joint work.
Although all these publications consider collaboration involving interaction between acoustic instruments with electronics, they have different aims.
In the description of each of these collaborations, the author discusses the idea and genesis of each work, presenting a musical analysis and results from the collaborations. Ivanovic also discusses collaborations between composers and performers from Croatia and Portugal, and analyses pieces by composers from these two countries.
Ivanovic compares manuscript versions with edited versions, pointing out the alterations made to the edited version, also showing compositional and idiomatic resources. Vieira discusses several composer and performer collaborations in cases involving composers who do not play the instrument for which they are composing, with the aim of characterising the interactive process between non-guitarist composers and guitarists involving repertoire for solo guitar.
The research is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with Brazilian non-guitarist composers and guitarists. As a result, composer and performer reached a version that corresponds both to the possibilities of the instrument and the musical elements and procedures intended by the composer. Their work, according to their description, was developed in workshop-style meetings. They discuss the use of a different scordatura in order to achieve specific sonorities, the relation between notation and sound, and the collaboration for the creation of the performance.
Ivanovic , in contrast with the others, focuses on editorial aspects of the score when considering the collaborative process. The author acted as a guitarist in the collaborative process. His attention, therefore, is centred on this instrument. The authors discuss the importance of the joint work in allowing for the effective use of extended techniques on the instrument. As described by the author, the project does not insist on one model of collaboration, but tries to discover methods for improving collaborative skills and identify ways in which musicians can benefit from collaborating.
Thus, Roche concludes the discussion emphasising the importance of documenting sessions; engaging with the composer in a genuine and full approach; organisation of the sessions; setting deadlines early and preparing for them not to be met.
The research gives more attention to the collaborative process than to the results from the collaboration. Roe chose a phenomenological methodology in order to explain how the collaboration affects the creative practice of the author and the selected composers.
Webb presents a panorama of composer and performer collaborations in creating contemporary music for trombone in the s and s, as well as his own work in collaboration with composers, which dates from the early s. The author discusses the role of the solo performer today and the importance of joint work with composers. As discussed above, the literature about collaboration includes several studies addressing wind instruments.
Roche , Roe and Webb address their own experiences in collaborative processes. Percussion Silva discusses composer and performer collaboration during the compositional process, focusing on three of seven commissioned works for marginalised percussion instruments.
According to the author, a marginalised instrument complies with at least one of the following: its instrumental technique is not codified; its usage is not ingrained in western art music; it does not have a consolidated repertoire.
The discussion is centred on the choice of instruments, adaptations of instruments and mallets and manners of playing. Morais also discusses composer and performer collaboration during the creation of a work for percussion, but in this case the selected instrument is the vibraphone. Giovannini analyses his collaboration with two composers during the compositional process and the creation of an interpretation of two new pieces for solo percussion.
The joint work involved discussion about the adaptation to the instrumental setup, the range of possible sonorities obtained from the use of different types of mallets and playing techniques. Overall, these three publications present a similar approach, showing that the choice of instruments and types of mallets constitute a central issue in compositions for percussion.
There is a wide range of percussion instruments, which results in countless possibilities of sonorities. Hence, as the authors indicate, non-percussionist composers can benefit from collaboration with percussionists, aiming to exploit their musical ideas through the vast universe of sonorities involving percussion.
Piano Dauphinais describes a real-time collaboration between composer and performer in a live performance of dance and audio installation — in which he acted as a pianist — as well as the advantages and limitations of guided improvisation and live interaction between composer and performer. The musical material is sight-read by the pianist since it is generated by an algorithm that collects data from the movement of dancers and members of the audience.
The discussion is focused on aspects of the work that mostly affect the pianist, indicating that a real-time collaboration in a live performance is a challenge but also a rewarding experience for the participants. The authors describe their initial meetings as a series of demonstrations of the fortepiano idiosyncrasies, since the composer did not have experience in writing for this instrument. During the composition of the modern piano version, meetings were repeated in the same way.
They focus mostly on the creation of an interpretation, discussing practical concerns of clarinet playing, blending of instrumental and electronic sounds, aspects related to the way the video should be projected, and the visual connection between performer and video.
Domenici analyses her collaboration with Paolo Cavallone on the work Confini, which was composed before their three meetings. The authors discuss the performance ritual, which can be manipulated by the composer and by the performer particularly in a contemporary music context, as well as the way it impacts on the audience.
Thus, they focus not only on the composer and the performer, but also on the audience. This is the case of Gyger , who presents his thoughts on a project entitled First Stones, in which the author acted as mentor and advisor. The project, which included nine composers and lasted for 6 months, discusses several kinds of collaborations, mapping the composer and performer collaboration as it evolves over time and analysing all different stages of the process.
Despite its small number, these composer-centred publications constitute a relevant contribution to this research area as they address composers discussing the importance of collaboration in composition. Discussion The research publications listed above demonstrate how deeply the figure of the author is embedded in creative practice.
Although there are numerous elements involved in the creation of a work produced in a collaborative context, composers are invariably acknowledged as authors in composer-performer collaborative processes.
Acknowledging composers as authors makes sense, since in the publications above participants mostly work in a complementarity pattern of collaboration John-Steiner, , in which the developed work is based on complementary knowledge, following a clear division of labour. The family pattern of collaboration John-Steiner, occurs less often in composer-performer collaborative processes. Depending on the flexibility of the role of participants, performers can provide significant contributions to the compositional process.
Thus, depending on how much the performer composes, during the process, the final work can be considered multiply-authored. It includes live improvised group decisions or automated computer algorithms.
This approach is rarer, since in the research publications listed above only Dauphinais embraces a collaboration of this nature. Their contribution, nonetheless, is so relevant to shape the final work that removing the performer would certainly lead to a different result. The problematic of writing for guitar This section aims to provide an historical overview of the guitar repertoire by non- guitarist composers, discussing problems faced by this group of composers when writing for the instrument.
It also presents a discussion about the bibliography on how to write for the guitar, as well as on the importance of collaborative processes as a significant source of information. Historical context Guitar repertoire has been discussed by several authors who mostly address the subject from a historical perspective, frequently including the origins and evolution of the instrument Alves, ; Wade, ; Dudeque, When it comes to non-guitarist composers, Sorrentino examines the subject, also from a historical perspective, specifically in Italy.
The above-mentioned authors explain that, until the end of the nineteenth century, composers of solo guitar repertoire were generally performers as well. It was only during the twentieth century that non-guitarist composers began writing for the guitar Zanon, a. Zanon a and Sorrentino mention that the Uruguayan composer Eduardo Fabini and the Italian composer Ottorino Respighi were the first non- guitarist composers to write for guitar during the first decade of the twentieth century: Fabini wrote, in , Mozartiana, while Respighi wrote, between and , Variazioni Sorrentino, Unfortunately, these two works are rarely performed.
Thus, the Homenaje can be considered the first guitar work - written by a non-guitarist composer — to have a significant impact on the repertoire. In the second half of the twentieth century, the British guitarist Julian Bream took the lead in commissioning new music for the guitar.
It is worth mentioning that, during this period, the Australian guitarist John Williams also had an important role in the development of the repertoire, inspiring composers such as Stephen Dodgson to write for the guitar Dudeque, Recently, several Brazilian non-guitarist composers have collaborated with guitarists, dedicating new works to solo guitar.
Depending on how the voice-leading between the chords is planned, guitar music can sound totally different from what the composer initially imagined, especially because of the chosen fingering. This is nearly impossible for someone who does not play the instrument to know beforehand Barrueco, Moreover, Bream adds that As with most stringed instruments, the very high notes of the guitar tend to have less quality, and complicated passagework in the highest register sometimes sounds thin and unconvincing; nevertheless, I am all in favour of mountaineering, if a composition really demands it.
Bream, , p. Another case in point is described by the Brazilian composer Ronaldo Miranda when explaining the composition process of Appassionata, his only piece for solo guitar thus far: I had never written for guitar before and had my limitations and fears. I was afraid of composing for that instrument. Whoever plays the piano thinks that the guitar can play almost everything in the same manner, but it cannot.
The solution is to condense the language. There are many limitations: one uses only the treble clef for melody and accompaniment , it sounds an octave lower than it is written and it requires a lot of attention with the strings, with the things that can or cannot be done [ I had to deal with these limits, with these characteristics.
Miranda, , p. These statements suggest that composing for the guitar requires the composer to study its specificities in order to create efficiently for the instrument Zanon, a. Thus, guitarists — not only in an academic environment — are interested in performing new music, especially music written by non-guitarist composers: my personal interest has been more in working with non-guitarist composers for the very reason that their music is not as idiomatic.
I enjoy collaborating with composers who do not play the instrument because they often have to reach further to imagine sound on the guitar, and also because I become much more involved in the creation of the music and its realization on the instrument. Tanenbaum, , p. Bibliography on how to write for guitar There are studies that focus on minimising some of the difficulties that may arise during the composition process.
However, it does not provide a detailed expiation about how to write efficiently for the guitar. This bibliography is not only useful for non-guitarist composers, but for guitarists who desire to learn about extended techniques and uncommon effects, visualising them in examples from the contemporary guitar repertoire.
The second group is specifically designed for non-guitarist composers. It also addresses some characteristics of the instrument, but focuses on more basic aspects of guitar writing, providing relevant information and suggestions specifically for non-guitarist composers who desire to learn how to write efficiently for the instrument.
The third group is the most limited among the three, and presents elementary information on guitar writing, as Kachian explains: The classic guitar has been either excluded of inadequately presented in orchestration textbooks, resulting in much misinformation about its technique, its practicality in some performing context, and its character. For most composers, this is an unrealistic expectation, leading to time-consuming consultation with the guitarist and extensive drafting.
Kachian, , p. Godfrey, , p. Fortunately, it is not the only resource available for non-guitarist composers who want to write for guitar; collaboration with performers is also an important source of information. I would even go so far as to say that this collaboration gave me a new concept of how to write for an instrument with a rich tradition. However, when composers who do not play the guitar decide to write for the instrument with no collaboration with a performer, new possibilities can emerge, since these composers do not limit themselves to preconceived ideas about what is and is not possible to do with the guitar Barrueco, Methods The methods applied in this research involved two stages: 1 an exploratory stage; and 2 a case study.
The first stage included two tasks: a a qualitative analysis of interviews, that I conducted specifically for this project, with composers and performers concerning their experience with collaborative processes; b a selection, analysis and performances of a repertoire with works for guitar written by the selected composers. The participants who were selected for interviewing are expert musicians.
According to Ericsson et al. Thus, the first stage was developed as an exploratory study on collaborative processes held by guitarists and non-guitarist composers who have worked together in collaboration. The obtained data was then organised and categorised in order to allow me to become fully familiarised with the phenomenon, and better ground the second stage of this research. The author also explains that participants in the study would all have experienced the process, and the development of the theory might help explain practice or provide a framework for further research.
Moreover, grounded theory is a relevant methodology for this research since it helps to organise a framework for the second stage. The second stage applied the findings from the first stage to conduct the collaborative work between myself and the composer Samuel Peruzzolo-Vieira. The choice of a phenomenological methodology is justified by the importance that this research gives to the composer and performer experience of a collaborative process.
Sokolowski summarises both attitudes, explaining that The natural attitude is the focus we have when we are involved in our original, world-directed stance, when we intend things, situations, facts, and any other kinds of objects. The natural attitude is, we might say, the default perspective, the one we start off from, the one we are in originally. We do not move into it from anything more basic. The phenomenological attitude, on the other hand, is the focus we have when we reflect upon the natural attitude and all the intentionalities that occur within it.
Exploratory stage This stage involved undertaking and analysing the results of fourteen exploratory interviews, conducted between December and August Considering the number of interviewees, Ruquoy mentions that: When it comes to qualitative studies, the researcher interviews a limited number of participants, since their representativeness, in statistical terms, is not relevant.
Thus, the interviews were undertaken in order to allow a better understanding of collaborative processes held by expert musicians, so as to apply the found patterns, approaches and strategies to the second stage: the case study. The disadvantage of interviewing is that the subjectivity inherent to both interviewer and interviewee cannot guarantee that the obtained information would be identical in a different situation.
This limitation, though, is unavoidable, since subjectivity is inherent to human nature when the human being is studied Ruquoy, The exploratory stage was concluded with selection, analysis and several performances of selected repertoire, featuring works by the interviewed composers.
The intention was not only to promote and better understand their music, but also to relate results from the interviews with specificities of this repertoire.
Participants A total of fourteen musicians were interviewed: eight guitarists and six non-guitarist composers.
The criteria for selecting participants was limited to the geographic context I am immersed and familiarised with — which is the same context of the composer I was expecting to work with in the case study the second stage. Moreover, I limited the field to non- guitarist composers who have published works for solo guitar. Several Brazilian researchers and performers were contacted in late and early in order to help elaborate a list of non-guitarist composers that fitted these criteria.
Thus, I started contacting active Brazilian non-guitarist composers, asking if their works involved collaboration with performers and, if it was the case, who were these performers. Later, the performers who collaborated with these composers were contacted. Table 1 lists the identified composers, their works for solo guitar, and the performers indicated by them. Table 1. However, he was mentioned by some interviewees and, therefore, was added later.
Composers Dimitri Cervo and Caio Senna, who have well-known works for guitar and collaborated with guitarists, were not included in this list since they did not published works for the instrument. The list of selected participants revels a specific profile: all participants are professors at Brazilian universities 5 and have had significant experience with collaborative processes. Another relevant characteristic is that some of the composers are also performers, and some of the performers are also composers.
Moreover, some composers collaborated with more than one performer and, as a result, the number of performers is higher than the number of composers. From the list presented in Table 1, two performers and one composer did not reply to the interview request. Another composer agreed to give an interview, but unfortunately passed away before the interview.
The list of participants who replied to my interview request is presented below Table 2 : 5 Except the composer Edino Krieger. Thus, I elaborated two interview guides: one for interviewing guitarists and the other for interviewing non-guitarist composers. The aim was to address the different roles that composers and performers have in collaborative processes. Based on this information, both interview guides considered 1 pre-collaboration; 2 the collaboration itself; and 3 post- collaboration.
All topics were discussed in detail with my supervisor and the interviews started only after we reached full agreement about both guides Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2. Figure 3. Interview guide for interviewing guitarists 4.
Interviewing procedures Since all interviewees are Brazilians or are living in Brazil 6, all interviews were conducted in Portuguese. Participants were interviewed via Skype and the entire meetings were recorded and, later, fully transcribed 7. In these cases, interviews were conducted via e-mail, since it was considered more important to have their contribution — albeit in a different format — than to reduce the number of participants.
To define categories, all interviews were read several times, until an adequate knowledge of their content was acquired. Every time a recurrent subject was found a second time, it was marked and a new reading was undertaken in order to find the same subject in other interviews.
If a subject recurred in other interviews, then a category was assigned and named after the subject. In order to organise this process, I elaborated a synopsis Guerra, , which consisted of a table for each category, listing all interviewees and their respective occurrences in the analysed category Table 4. Table 4. Later, I prepared descriptions of every category, which were reviewed by my supervisor in order to check if they were relevant enough to integrate the list. Moreover, categories and occurrences were also reviewed by my supervisor to verify if each occurrence actually pertained to the category to which I assigned them.
An excerpt from the synopsis of the interviews 9 is shown in Table 5. Excerpt from the synopsis of the interviews — eighth category 8 Correction of unplayable sections [15 occurrences] .
E foram coisas que ficaram musicalmente mais interessantes que estava originalmente escrito. Em outros momentos, ele me consultava para ver a viabilidade de determinada frase, ou determinado acorde, coisas assim. Bartholomeu Wiese . James Correa . Eu mostrava possibilidades maiores. Pauxy Gentil- . Celso Loureiro Chaves 4. The repertoire After the interviews, one piece by each interviewed composer was selected to constitute a repertoire.
The intention was not only to promote this music but also to relate results from the interviews with specificities of the repertoire. Therefore, there were no specific criteria for selecting pieces in these cases. This last criterion was used to select pieces by Ricardo Tacuchian and Edino Krieger.
Thus, when preparing the repertoire for performance, a score analysis was undertaken in order to point out and discuss its idiomatic and non-idiomatic features. The mechanics of musical instruments commonly influence how the music itself is organized. Like spoken utterances, musical passages can be 10 In the PDF version of this thesis, pieces listed in Table 6 have direct hyperlinks to video recordings of one of my recitals.
Case study 4. Organisation of the sessions Results obtained from the previous stage were used to plan and organise the collaborative work with the composer Samuel Peruzzolo-Vieira.
The sessions were initially planned to take place from December to December However, the project was extended until September The first session focused on demonstrating possibilities and features of the classical guitar. Sessions two through six focused on the collaboration during the composition process of the first two pieces and the seventh session focused on the creation of an interpretation of the first two pieces.
The eighth session was dedicated to discussing the third piece, which was composed without continued contact, aiming to document my revision of the score. Finally, the ninth session consisted of a looking-back discussion, intending to analyse the entire project Table 7. Table 7. Documenting the sessions All stages of this project were registered on video 11, which functioned both as a record of the process and as a multimedia support that helped Samuel during the composition process.
Videos were edited to include the score of each analysed section, allowing for a better visualisation of the discussed ideas. It is worth mentioning that there were some technical issues during some recordings, i. Thus, all affected moments — the incomplete discussions — had to be repeated. Then, videos were edited to remove and replace the affected moments.
Additionally, all composition drafts from collaboration sessions were kept, allowing for a score analysis of the entire process of transformation and adaptation of the three pieces. All drafts are available in appendices 16 through The collaborative work and the compositional process When Samuel was invited to take part in this project, in , he was asked to write three pieces for solo guitar. There were no stipulations regarding length, form or style.
Samuel was asked, however, to experiment with contrasting musical ideas in order to generate varied content for discussion. He was also asked not to put anything on paper before the first stage of this project was finished. It was previously agreed upon that Samuel would write all the pieces — sections or full pieces — by himself and, then, send me the material to be analysed before each session. The intention was to be as objective as possible, and avoid long sessions.
This, however, did not prevent us from discussing new issues and discovering new possibilities together during the sessions. Data analysis After editing all videos recorded during the collaboration sessions, as explained in section 4. By analysing the marked sections, a list of codes was elaborated and named after the subject in focus. Using the software HyperResearch 12, codes were designated to the correspondent video segment.
Since several codes refer to similar subjects, they were arranged into groups — named after the general subjects of the grouped codes. The purpose of grouping codes was to allow an organised discussion regarding each commissioned piece. Thus, piece sections discussed during the collaboration sessions were classified in groups, which are then, subdivided in codes. Results This section presents the results obtained from the main sections of this research: 1 the exploratory study and 2 the case study.
Firstly, results from the categorical analysis are examined and confronted with the specificities found in the selected repertoire. Secondly, the case study is described in detail, discussing every piece section analysed during the collaboration session.
Exploratory stage: Interviews with non-guitarist composers Obtained data from the categorical analysis of the interviews was organised according to recurring terms and subjects. Meaningful categories were classified according to their frequency. A total of twelve categories with 5 occurrences or more were singled out.