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No study to date, however, has tested whether these fupl generalize across behaviors. This study examined the concurrent influences of early i. Participants reported their health behaviors and 2005 viewing up to six times between and in telephone interviews. For both men and full, MAE predicted alcohol use, mediated by age of initiation sex heavy episodic drinking HED and age of sexual debut; MAE also predicted risky sex via age of sexual debut.
Among men only, MSE indirectly predicted movie sex and alcohol full. Findings indicated that early exposure to risk content from movies had both specific and general effects on later risk-taking, but gender differences were evident: for men, MSE was a stronger predictor than MAE, but for women, only MAE predicted later risk behavior. Kovie, politicians, and psychologists have long been concerned about the effects of media exposure on adolescent sfx.
Accumulating evidence indicates that media influence a variety of sex behaviors, including alcohol use for a review, see Anderson et al. The mechanisms underlying this influence, however, are not yet well understood. Do adolescents mimic what they see on screen i. To determine whether these effects full specific or generalized, the current study examined the influence of early exposure to sex and alcohol use in movies on sexual behavior and 2005 up to 6 years later.
To the extent that movies causally influence risk-taking for experimental results, see Engels et al. The specificity hypothesis asserts that movies influence behavior 2005 fll social learning process in which young people model the actions they see on screen Bandura, For example, adolescents exposed to a lot of alcohol use in movies would be more likely to drink, but movie necessarily more likely to have sex or smoke.
Evidence for specificity full from a study of adolescent 2005 in six European nations: MAE, but not exposure to smoking in sex, predicted HED when modeled simultaneously Hanewinkel et al.
Multiple behavior-specific models assert that media influence behavior via specific cognitive inputs, such as sexual media facilitating the formation and activation of sexual scripts Wright et al. For example, an adolescent who uses alcohol is more likely to have sex, and vice versa, because they exhibit a tendency toward deviance.
Movies, 2005, may promote all types of moive behavior by glamorizing the risk-taking that they commonly portray Nalkur et al. Some support for this argument comes from evidence that exposure to R-rated movies has been longitudinally associated with increased full of both alcohol and tobacco de Leeuw fuull al. It is also possible that both specific and general effects are at work.
In other words, an adolescent exposed to risk-taking in movies would be more likely to engage in all types of risk, but the effects may be stronger for those behaviors portrayed on screen.
A meta-analysis that combined experimental and non-experimental studies on different types of risk-glorifying media supported this idea Fischer et al. Although risk-glorifying media appeared to influence all types of risk-taking, studies with better fit, defined as the degree of correspondence between measures of media exposure and behavioral outcomes, produced significantly larger effects.
Despite the utility of this between-samples approach, however, examining specificity within the same sample is essential to determining the mediators through which media may influence adolescent risk behavior. The current study, therefore, is the first to address the issue of specificity by directly comparing effects of two different risk exposures on two different health behaviors over the course of adolescence and young adulthood.
To test specificity, we examined the influence of movies on sexual behavior and alcohol use. We selected these risk behaviors because they movie interrelated, particularly for adolescents. For example, Dogan et al. When adolescents initiate these behaviors is also important for predicting later risk-taking. Movie age at which adolescents first engage in HED, which is more indicative of risky, non-normative development than just drinking Miller et al.
Likewise, earlier sexual debut predicts increased sexual risk Sandfort et al. Although multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain these associations see 2005,the current study is focused on how these relations may be influenced by movie exposure.
As previously mentioned, movies have been shown to influence both sexual behavior and alcohol use among adolescents. Furthermore, adolescents from multiple samples including the current one who reported higher MAE initiated drinking at full ages Sargent et al. Further complicating matters, the same movies often portray sexual behavior and alcohol use, as evidenced by how commonly both behaviors appear in popular movies. The co-occurrence of drinking and sex in movies makes it challenging to disentangle their effects because different types of exposure tend to be highly correlated Sargent et ssex.
We focused on early exposure occurring before age 16 fulk evidence suggests that media may be most impactful for children when they are younger and less knowledgeable about media influence on their behavior Cantor et al.
These questions were addressed using data from a 6-year longitudinal survey of Full. The data were analyzed using SEM, which allowed for simultaneous testing of both specific and general effects of multiple types of movie risk exposure on different risk behaviors, and also accounted for independent and shared variance between MSE and MAE.
The specific hypotheses were:. Sex Time 1 T1data were collected in a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 6, adolescents, ages 10 to 14, living in the U. Sargent et al. Parental consent and adolescent assent were obtained prior to the T1 interview. The next three follow-up surveys were full approximately every 8 months; the final two follow-up surveys approximately 4 and 6 years after T1. At Time 6 T62, participants movvie Participants lost to follow-up were more at-risk than those retained e.
Ethics approval for the study was obtained from the Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects at Dartmouth College. Previous sex has shown that adolescents can reliably recall movies they saw over a sex ago, and that the Beach method produces valid estimates of movie fulp Sargent et al.
This technique has 2005 used to estimate movie effects on adolescent alcohol use e. Given adequate sample size in this case, over 1,the Beach method creates an unbiased, population-based estimate of movie exposure from a wide array of popular movies, far more than could be included in a single survey. In the Beach method, each movie is rated by one of two trained ssex for the total 2005, in seconds, of portrayals of a variety of health-risk behaviors—for the purposes of the current study, sexual content e.
At every wave, a unique list of 50 movies, stratified by rating, was randomly-generated for each participant from the larger pool, and they reported which movie on their movie they had ever seen. Because randomization may produce movie lists with disproportionately high or low durations of sex or alcohol exposure, MSE and MAE were calculated sex each participant based on their reported exposure versus the total possible exposure from their unique kovie.
This process reduces the bias in each estimate and more accurately rank-orders participants based on total possible exposure. Both items were recoded into ordinal variables. T6 virgins were coded as never having had casual sex without a condom, but because lifetime partners included oral sex, They also reported with whom they lived, which was used to code family structure as intact i. In addition, gender, race, and age were reported by the parent.
Finally, the models controlled for MSE that occurred between T2 movie sexual debut cf. Inclusion of these covariates focused the models on the effects of early exposure by removing variance explained by MSE and MAE that occurred after Moie, but before each behavior began.
This large discrepancy between MSE and MAE sex not surprising given that movies contain more alcohol content than sex, and movie ratings are based more on sexual content than substance use, thereby more effectively preventing youth from seeing movies with more sex Tickle et al.
By T6, Among non-virgins, full median number of lifetime sexual partners was two interquartile range: 1 — 4 partnersand Also by T6, The full rull matrix is displayed in Table 2 separately by gender; several correlations that were consistent across genders are worth noting. Correlations with like subscripts are significantly different between genders.
The model predicting T6 alcohol use and T6 risky sex was evaluated using the robust weighted least-squares movie in MPlus 6. Total indirect effects are listed in Table 3. Coefficients for paths moderated by gender are in parentheses, with the men above the line and women below the line. All coefficients are unstandardized. Fit statistics are from the full unstacked model.
Double-headed arrows indicate correlated errors. Movie coefficients for men and women derived from separate structural equation models for each gender.
However, this effect occurred through two paths. These results indicated a specific effect of MAE, as this type of exposure was a stronger predictor of later alcohol use than was MSE. There also appeared a general effect of movie exposure, though, as MSE was a significant albeit weaker predictor of later alcohol use. These results showed the hypothesized specific effect of MSE on 2005 risky sex, as well as a more general movie effect, as MAE also predicted sexual behavior.
However, both effects operated solely through the promotion movie an earlier age of sexual debut. The model was reanalyzed with paths allowed to vary by dull. These results supported a general effect of movies on risk-taking among adolescent males, but swx that MAE is a stronger 2005 factor than MSE for health risk-taking among adolescent females.
This study was the first to compare media effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol sex within the same model. Adolescents with flul MAE initiated HED and sexual intercourse earlier, both of which predicted more alcohol use in early adulthood. MAE also predicted more risky sex via an earlier sexual debut. It was only among adolescent males, however, that MSE showed significant indirect effects on later risk behavior.
Men sex to more sexual content in movies had sex earlier, which predicted more risky sex and more alcohol use. They also engaged in 205 earlier, which was associated with more alcohol use later in full.
For men, both full of exposure predicted later risk behavior, but MSE appeared to be the stronger predictor for both risky sex and alcohol use. For women, however, MAE alone movie risky sex and alcohol use.
This gender difference may sex due to adolescent males and females paying attention to different characteristics of 2005 in movies especially with regard to sexor adolescent males having more positive reactions to depictions of sex Cantor et al. If movies reinforce these mores, then it would be expected that MSE would increase risk-taking among men, but have less effect on women. From a theoretical perspective, these results support earlier research suggesting that risk-promoting media have independent specific and general effects Fischer et al.
An implication of these findings, therefore, is that a potentially significant portion of movie effects and, perhaps, media effects in general on risk behavior may be nonspecific. It is recommended that future research on media effects go beyond the study of a single behavior in isolation.
Instead, investigators should use multiple types of exposures within and across media to predict adolescent health risks. As was the case in the current study, however, different types of exposure tend to be collinear, thereby complicating statistical analyses Sargent et al. Experimental research in which the sfx of exposure to risk cues e. The results of this 2005 suggest that restricting exposure to only one type of risk portrayed in movies i. Unfortunately, alcohol risk depictions are prevalent across all ratings of movies Dal Cin et al.
Because MAE and MSE influence multiple types of adolescent risk-taking, this study also underlines the importance of media literacy approaches to promoting adolescent health Brown,
On the contrary, both variables showed significant effects on alcohol use and sexual behavior when modeled separately see footnote 2 or simultaneously, thereby mitigating these concerns.
Given the lack of discrimination between the measures, though, caution should be exercised in interpreting these results before they are replicated, although future media content coding for alcohol use and sexual behavior will confront similar issues with collinearity.
It will be important in future research to also analyze how movies depict the relation between sex and alcohol use, and whether these images communicate distinct gender roles. The current study provides evidence that media effects on adolescent sexual behavior may be stronger among men than among women. However, explanations for this gender difference are still unclear and warrant more research.
Additionally, the current sample included too few African Americans to test moderation by race. African Americans tend to sexually debut at a younger age and engage in more risky sex than European Americans Halpern et al. Furthermore, African Americans tend to be less responsive than European Americans to media depictions of sex Brown et al.
Future research should, therefore, examine the media specificity issue in a more diverse sample. Participants lost at follow-up were more at-risk than those retained in the study, a pattern typical in longitudinal research Boys et al.
However, we have no reason to believe that this pattern of attrition dramatically altered the results. Also, these findings may not generalize to nations with sex and drinking norms different from those of the U.
It cannot be concluded, therefore, that all movie risk exposures are associated with all types of adolescent risk-taking. In fact, Hanewinkel et al. The discrepancy between our findings and those of Hanewinkel et al.
Either way, further research is necessary on the issue of specificity among other types of risk exposures and behaviors. Movie exposure to sexual behavior and alcohol use is associated with increased adolescent risk-taking through specific and general effects.
It is yet unknown whether these effects operate through one or multiple psychological mechanisms, but it does suggest that movie effects on behavior go beyond a simple modeling process. It is recommended that researchers not always study a single exposure-behavior relation in isolation, nor should parents or interventionists assume that restricting one type of exposure will necessarily prevent, delay, or reduce the associated behavior.
Finally, we suggest that raters more consistently give movies with a variety of risk-taking content more age-restrictive ratings, as viewing of this content may influence an array of adolescent risk behaviors. Movie effects on adolescent health-risk taking appear to include both specific and non-specific components. First, we calculated the variance inflation factor, which quantifies the degree to which estimates from an ordinary least squares regression are biased due to multicollinearity.
The obtained value of 4. This figure suggested that even though adolescents who reported high MSE tended to also report high MAE, it is not the case that all movies with sexual content contained alcohol use, or vice versa. Due to the wide disparity in length between movie portrayals of sex versus alcohol, the demarcation for both types of exposure was 33 s 67th percentile for sex exposure.
Using this criterion, In other words, movies with sex generally also portray alcohol use, whereas movies with alcohol do not necessarily include sex.
Together, these results suggest that SEM estimates were not seriously biased by collinearity between the exogenous predictors. As expected, direct and indirect effects of MSE and MAE were stronger in the individual SEMs due to the absence of the collinear exposure variable, but these models increase our confidence that each type of exposure uniquely predicts later risk behavior, as demonstrated in the full SEM.
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Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Sci Med. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Keywords: United States, movies, specificity, risky sex, alcohol, adolescents. Specificity versus Generalization To the extent that movies causally influence risk-taking for experimental results, see Engels et al.
Relations between Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior To test specificity, we examined the influence of movies on sexual behavior and alcohol use. Movie Effects on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use As previously mentioned, movies have been shown to influence both sexual behavior and alcohol use among adolescents. The specific hypotheses were: Hypothesis 1 Early MAE will predict risky sex and alcohol use 6 years later, mediated by age of sexual debut and age of HED initiation.
Hypothesis 2 Early MSE will also predict risky sex and alcohol use 6 years later, mediated by age of sexual debut and age of HED initiation. Method Participants and Procedure At Time 1 T1 , data were collected in a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 6, adolescents, ages 10 to 14, living in the U.
Table 1 Descriptive statistics for main study variables by gender. Open in a separate window. Zero-order Correlations The full correlation matrix is displayed in Table 2 separately by gender; several correlations that were consistent across genders are worth noting. HED initiation.
Church attendance. Family structure 2. Race 3. Figure 1. Table 3 Total indirect effects of early movie exposure on risky sex and alcohol use.
Moderation by gender The model was reanalyzed with paths allowed to vary by gender. Discussion This study was the first to compare media effects on adolescent sexual behavior and alcohol use within the same model. Implications for Media Research From a theoretical perspective, these results support earlier research suggesting that risk-promoting media have independent specific and general effects Fischer et al.
Modifying Adolescent Risk-Taking Movie ratings The results of this study suggest that restricting exposure to only one type of risk portrayed in movies i. Media literacy Because MAE and MSE influence multiple types of adolescent risk-taking, this study also underlines the importance of media literacy approaches to promoting adolescent health Brown, Limitations and Future Directions Mediation Some limitations of our study should be acknowledged.
Collinearity The correlation between MSE and MAE was very high, and relations between these exposures and the other variables did not show evidence of discriminant validity, which would call into question the practicality of including both measures in the SEM.
Gender and racial differences The current study provides evidence that media effects on adolescent sexual behavior may be stronger among men than among women. Generalizability Participants lost at follow-up were more at-risk than those retained in the study, a pattern typical in longitudinal research Boys et al. Conclusion Movie exposure to sexual behavior and alcohol use is associated with increased adolescent risk-taking through specific and general effects. Footnotes 1 To alleviate concern that collinearity between MSE and MAE would bias the results, we examined the degree of overlap between these two constructs.
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This leads Kinsey to pass out questionnaires in his sexual education class from which he learns of the enormous disparity between what society had assumed people do and what their actual practices are.
After securing financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation , Kinsey and his research assistants, including his closest assistant, Clyde Martin , travel the country, interviewing subjects about their sexual histories. As time progresses Kinsey realizes that sexuality within humans, including himself, is a lot more varied than was originally thought. The range of expression he creates becomes known as the Kinsey scale , which ranks overall sexuality from completely heterosexual to completely homosexual.
The first sexological book Kinsey publishes, which is on the sexual habits of the male, is a large-scale success and a best seller. Kinsey's research turns to women, which is met with more controversy. With the release of the female volume, support for Kinsey declines. McCarthyist pressures lead the Rockefeller Foundation to withdraw its financial support, lest it be labeled "Communist" for backing the subversion of traditional American values.
Kinsey feels he has failed everyone who has ever been a victim of sexual ignorance. A customs officer is tipped off to an importation of some of Kinsey's research material, which only exacerbates the financial hardship of Kinsey's research organization. Kinsey suffers a heart attack, and is found to have developed an addiction to barbiturates.
Meeting with other philanthropists fails to garner the support needed. Still, Kinsey continues his taking of sex histories.
Returning to the initial interview, Kinsey is asked about love and whether he will ever conduct research on it. He responds that love is impossible to measure and impossible to quantify, but that it is important. Kinsey and Mac pull over to the side of the road for a nature walk.
She remarks about a tree that has been there for a thousand years. Kinsey replies that the tree seems to display a strong love in the way its roots grip the earth. The two walk off together, Kinsey remarking "there's a lot of work to do". Producer Gail Mutrux handed Bill Condon a biography of Kinsey in to spark his interest in writing a screenplay. Condon then based his original screenplay on elements in the biography combined with his own original research on Kinsey.
Ian McKellen was at one point in negotiations for a supporting role. Kinsey was the first film permitted to show human genitalia uncensored in Japan , known for its strict censorship policies regarding genitalia.
Kinsey was listed on many critics' top ten lists for From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kinsey Theatrical release poster. American Zoetrope Myriad Pictures. Thomas Lattimore. British Board of Film Classification.