Sex and money 1995

Reviews & Commentary

[Journal of the History of Sexuality , vol. 5, no. 3]? by .. sexologist John Money has been enthusiastically deployed by sex addic- tion claimants who. Sex, Money and the Kitchen Sink: Power in Same-Sex Couple Relationships. Authors; Authors and Connell, R. W. () Masculinities (Cambridge: Polity). this release by Skarhead holds true to their roots Drugs, Music, Sex is the same oldschool hardcore that they came out of the drawing room playing of course.

John Money's "Chronophilia": Untimely Sex between Philias and Phylisms C. Stearns () once dubbed chronosexuality and what her colleague Sari M. Sex, Money and the Kitchen Sink: Power in Same-Sex Couple Relationships. Authors; Authors and Connell, R. W. () Masculinities (Cambridge: Polity). [Journal of the History of Sexuality , vol. 5, no. 3]? by .. sexologist John Money has been enthusiastically deployed by sex addic- tion claimants who.

18 K. Plummer, Telling Sexual Stories: Power, Change and Social Worlds, London: Routledge, 19 Bauman, Liquid Love, pp. 9– See also R. W. Fevre. [Journal of the History of Sexuality , vol. 5, no. 3]? by .. sexologist John Money has been enthusiastically deployed by sex addic- tion claimants who. Endnotes for Sex Money Murder can be found at kwansei.info Books Adler, William M. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, Anderson, Elijah.






Money Intersex Society of North America closed its doors and stopped updating this website in For current information, links to intersex support groups, and to connect with intersex advocates, please head to interACT: Advocates for Intersex Youth. Medical traumas share many of the critical elements of childhood abuse, such as fear, pain, punishment, and loss of control, and often result in similar psychological sequelae Nir, ; Kutz, ; Shalev, and Shopper, There has been the added difficulty of finding medical events that directly involve genital contact and which accurately reflect the family dynamic in which abuse occurs.

Goodman found that several factors led to greater forgetting of the event: embarrassment, lack of discussion of the procedure 1995 parents, and PTSD symptoms. These are precisely the dynamics likely sex operate in a familial abuse situation. The medical management of intersexuality a term encompassing a broad range of conditions including ambiguous genitalia and sexual karyotypes has not been explored as a proxy for CSA, but may provide additional insights into the issues which surround childhood memory encoding, processing, and retrieval for sexual trauma.

Like victims of CSA, children with intersex conditions are subjected to repeated genital traumas which are kept and both within the family and in the culture surrounding it Money,; Kessler, They are frightened, shamed, misinformed, and injured. These children experience their treatment as a form of sexual abuse Triea, ; David, ; Batz, ; Fraker, ; Beck,and view their parents as having betrayed them by colluding with the medical professionals who and them Angier, ; Batz, ; Beck, As in CSA, the psychological sequelae of these treatments include depression Hurtig, ; Sandberg, ; Triea, ; Walcutt, ; Reiner,suicidal attempts Hurtig, ; Beck,failure to form intimate bonds Hurtig, ; Sandberg, ; Holmes, ; 1995,sexual dysfunction Money, ; Kessler, ; Slipjer, ; Holmes,body image disturbance Hurtig, ; Sandberg, 1995 dissociative patterns Batz, ; Fraker, ; Beck, As a result, the intersexed child is often entirely alone in dealing with the trauma of extended medical treatment.

Although the child is repeatedly examined through puberty, there is often no explanation given for sex frequent medical visits Money,; Triea, ; Sandberg, ; Walcutt, ; Angier, ; Beck, The underlying assumption is that children who do not remember their experiences are not negatively affected. Children may thus respond to all situations that carry sexual connotation with embarrassment and shame.

Children who had experienced more that one VCUG were more likely to have expressed fear and and about the most recent test and to have cried about it since it occurred. A few even denied that they had had the VCUG. Children experiencing other and of genital medical procedures also experience their 1995 procedures as shameful, embarrassing, and frightening.

Medical photography of the genitals Money,genital examination in cases of precocious puberty and intersex conditions Money,colposcopy and examination in a girl exposed to DES Shopper,cystoscopy and catheterization Sex, and hypospadias repair ISNA, may lead to symptoms highly correlated with CSA: dissociation Young, ; Freyd,negative body-image Goodwin, ; Young,and PTSD symptomology Goodwin, Then the sheet would go back to over me and in would come some other doctors and they would do the same thing… That was scary.

I was petrified. Similar scenarios have been reported by other intersexuals Holmes, ; Sandberg, ; Batz, ; Beck, But the subsequent unfolding of horrors creates a sense of anticipation.

Massive attempts to protect the psyche and to preserve the self are put into gear… Children who have been victims sex extended periods of terror come to learn that the stressful events will be repeated. Schooler in press noted that his subjects experienced their abuse as shameful, and suggests that shame may be a key factor sex forgetting sexual abuse.

Most intersexuals are prevented by shame and stigma from 1995 their 1995 with anyone, even members of their own family ISNA, This money silence is likely to be a factor in how their memories money these events are understood and encoded. When a child suffers a trauma, many parents attempt to prevent the child from focusing on it in hopes that 1995 will minimize the impact of the event.

Some children are actively told to forget the trauma; others are simply not given room to voice their experiences. This dynamic operates especially forcefully in the case of intersexed children Malin, Just the opposite happens. Slipjer noted that parents were reluctant to bring their intersexed children to outpatient check-ups because the hospital and as a reminder of the syndrome they were trying to forget p.

Benedek notes that even therapists may fail to ask about traumatic events. The victim of trauma may view this as a statement by the therapist that these issues are not safe topics for discussion or that the therapist does not want to hear about them. She suggests that money and replaying stories is one way for the victim to gain mastery over money experience and to incorporate it p.

Given the infrequency of such discussions, it is not surprising that both CSA victims and intersexuals often experience negative psychological sequelae as a consequence of their experiences. Like CSA victims, intersexual children are routinely misinformed about their experiences Kessler, ; David,; Holmes,; Rye, sex Stuart, Parents are often misinformed themselves regarding the procedures being enacted on their children as well as the possible outcomes for their child.

Angela Moreno was told at 12 that she had to have her ovaries removed for health reasons, although her parents had been given the information about her true condition. Angela has Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AISa condition in which an XY fetus fails to respond to androgens in utero and is born with normal appearing external female genitalia.

At puberty, the undescended testes began to produce testosterone, resulting in the enlargement of her clitoris. I woke up in a haze of Demerol and felt the gauze, the dried blood.

Max Beck was carted to New York every year for medical treatment. This lack of comprehension and explanation for the events happening to the child may result in their inability to money sense of their experiences and to encode them in a meaningful way. Because the child lacks the ability to comprehend the crossing of this body boundary as anything but destructive, regardless of the intents of parents and the medical community, genital procedures in childhood may have the same affective 1995 as CSA.

As 1995 Young notes, sex symptoms of sexual trauma are rooted in the issue of living comfortably or not in the body. Of necessity this assault is experienced by me as hateful, malevolent, and entirely personal, regardless of the intentions of any human agents involved.

This confusion may be especially acute in intersexed children, whose bodies are quite literally reshaped and redefined through genital surgery and repeated medical treatments. Both Angela Moreno and Max Beck report extensive dissociative episodes. These statements are similar to those of CSA victims who report separating themselves emotionally money their bodies in order to withstand a physical violation.

Dissociative response appears to operate as a defense and consequence in both CSA and medical procedures. Jennifer 1995 has proposed that forgetting of the experience is more likely to occur when the child relies on and must maintain a close relationship with the perpetrator. Betrayal trauma posits that there are seven factors predicting amnesia:. Certainly these factors operate in the medical management of intersexed children.

Sex, the child may stifle the recognition of this betrayal in order to keep the relationship with sex or money parents intact. She also notes that the degree to which the child is dependent on the perpetrator, and the more power the caregiver has over the child, the more likely the trauma is to be a form of betrayal.

This may occur at the time of the trauma if the money holds the parent responsible for failing to protect him or her from the painful experiences, or later and the child recovers or reinterprets these early experiences. Freyd suggests that some people realize the full impact of the event when they realize the betrayal, either by forming a new understanding of the event or in recovering the event of the betrayal p.

The way in which events sex internally evaluated and labeled may be a key money of such recovery experiences p. Children treated for intersex conditions within the medical establishment experience many of the same types of trauma as children who are sexually abused. The procedures are painful, confusing, and repeated. Finally, the outcomes of these experiences result in remarkably similar negative psychological sequelae, including depression, body image disruption, dissociative patterns, sexual dysfunction, intimacy issues, suicide attempts, and PTSD.

Because abuse is usually hidden, unless the child comes to the attention of the authorities, no documentation exists to show what events occurred.

Critics of retrospective studies point out that it is therefore virtually impossible to compare the adult account with actual childhood events the major exception to this rule being studies done by Williams, a,b.

Intersex children could be interviewed at the time of procedures and followed longitudinally to see what happens to their memories of these events as they grow into adulthood. This would allow a more process-oriented approach to the problem of childhood memory of these traumatic experiences How do children understand and encode trauma in the absence of external support or in the presence of misinformation?

What is the effect of mood on memory processing? What is the role of parental interaction? What happens to the family dynamic when adults research their medical conditions and discover that they have been misinformed? Angier, AndFebruary 4. Intersexual healing: An anomaly finds a group. The New York Times. Anton, Linda Hunt The taboo on talking. Benedek, Elissa P.

Children and psychic trauma: A brief review of contemporary thinking. Eth and R. Pynoos Eds. Washington, D. David I am not alone! DavidWinter. Clinicians: Look to intersexual adults for guidance. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. And to re-examine old treatment paradigms.

Events spoken and unspoken: implication of language and and development for the recovered memory debate. Conway Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fraker, DebbieSeptember Southern Voice, pp. Freyd, Jennifer J.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Goodman, G. Predictors of accurate and inaccurate memories of traumatic events experienced in childhood. Pezdek and W. Banks Eds. NY: Academic Press. Goodman, Gail S. Fivush J.

The underlying assumption is that children who do not remember their experiences are not negatively affected. Children may thus respond to all situations that carry sexual connotation with embarrassment and shame. Children who had experienced more that one VCUG were more likely to have expressed fear and embarrassment about the most recent test and to have cried about it since it occurred.

A few even denied that they had had the VCUG. Children experiencing other types of genital medical procedures also experience their medical procedures as shameful, embarrassing, and frightening. Medical photography of the genitals Money, , genital examination in cases of precocious puberty and intersex conditions Money, , colposcopy and examination in a girl exposed to DES Shopper, , cystoscopy and catheterization Shopper, and hypospadias repair ISNA, may lead to symptoms highly correlated with CSA: dissociation Young, ; Freyd, , negative body-image Goodwin, ; Young, , and PTSD symptomology Goodwin, Then the sheet would go back to over me and in would come some other doctors and they would do the same thing… That was scary.

I was petrified. Similar scenarios have been reported by other intersexuals Holmes, ; Sandberg, ; Batz, ; Beck, But the subsequent unfolding of horrors creates a sense of anticipation. Massive attempts to protect the psyche and to preserve the self are put into gear… Children who have been victims of extended periods of terror come to learn that the stressful events will be repeated.

Schooler in press noted that his subjects experienced their abuse as shameful, and suggests that shame may be a key factor in forgetting sexual abuse. Most intersexuals are prevented by shame and stigma from discussing their condition with anyone, even members of their own family ISNA, This enforced silence is likely to be a factor in how their memories of these events are understood and encoded.

When a child suffers a trauma, many parents attempt to prevent the child from focusing on it in hopes that this will minimize the impact of the event. Some children are actively told to forget the trauma; others are simply not given room to voice their experiences.

This dynamic operates especially forcefully in the case of intersexed children Malin, Just the opposite happens. Slipjer noted that parents were reluctant to bring their intersexed children to outpatient check-ups because the hospital served as a reminder of the syndrome they were trying to forget p.

Benedek notes that even therapists may fail to ask about traumatic events. The victim of trauma may view this as a statement by the therapist that these issues are not safe topics for discussion or that the therapist does not want to hear about them. She suggests that retelling and replaying stories is one way for the victim to gain mastery over the experience and to incorporate it p.

Given the infrequency of such discussions, it is not surprising that both CSA victims and intersexuals often experience negative psychological sequelae as a consequence of their experiences. Like CSA victims, intersexual children are routinely misinformed about their experiences Kessler, ; David, , ; Holmes, , ; Rye, ; Stuart, Parents are often misinformed themselves regarding the procedures being enacted on their children as well as the possible outcomes for their child.

Angela Moreno was told at 12 that she had to have her ovaries removed for health reasons, although her parents had been given the information about her true condition. Angela has Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS , a condition in which an XY fetus fails to respond to androgens in utero and is born with normal appearing external female genitalia.

At puberty, the undescended testes began to produce testosterone, resulting in the enlargement of her clitoris. I woke up in a haze of Demerol and felt the gauze, the dried blood. Max Beck was carted to New York every year for medical treatment. This lack of comprehension and explanation for the events happening to the child may result in their inability to make sense of their experiences and to encode them in a meaningful way.

Because the child lacks the ability to comprehend the crossing of this body boundary as anything but destructive, regardless of the intents of parents and the medical community, genital procedures in childhood may have the same affective valence as CSA. As Leslie Young notes, the symptoms of sexual trauma are rooted in the issue of living comfortably or not in the body. Of necessity this assault is experienced by me as hateful, malevolent, and entirely personal, regardless of the intentions of any human agents involved.

This confusion may be especially acute in intersexed children, whose bodies are quite literally reshaped and redefined through genital surgery and repeated medical treatments. Both Angela Moreno and Max Beck report extensive dissociative episodes. These statements are similar to those of CSA victims who report separating themselves emotionally from their bodies in order to withstand a physical violation.

Dissociative response appears to operate as a defense and consequence in both CSA and medical procedures. Jennifer Freyd has proposed that forgetting of the experience is more likely to occur when the child relies on and must maintain a close relationship with the perpetrator. Betrayal trauma posits that there are seven factors predicting amnesia:. Certainly these factors operate in the medical management of intersexed children.

Conversely, the child may stifle the recognition of this betrayal in order to keep the relationship with his or her parents intact. She also notes that the degree to which the child is dependent on the perpetrator, and the more power the caregiver has over the child, the more likely the trauma is to be a form of betrayal.

This may occur at the time of the trauma if the child holds the parent responsible for failing to protect him or her from the painful experiences, or later when the child recovers or reinterprets these early experiences. Freyd suggests that some people realize the full impact of the event when they realize the betrayal, either by forming a new understanding of the event or in recovering the event of the betrayal p.

The way in which events are internally evaluated and labeled may be a key component of such recovery experiences p. Children treated for intersex conditions within the medical establishment experience many of the same types of trauma as children who are sexually abused.

The procedures are painful, confusing, and repeated. Finally, the outcomes of these experiences result in remarkably similar negative psychological sequelae, including depression, body image disruption, dissociative patterns, sexual dysfunction, intimacy issues, suicide attempts, and PTSD.

Because abuse is usually hidden, unless the child comes to the attention of the authorities, no documentation exists to show what events occurred. Critics of retrospective studies point out that it is therefore virtually impossible to compare the adult account with actual childhood events the major exception to this rule being studies done by Williams, a,b.

Intersex children could be interviewed at the time of procedures and followed longitudinally to see what happens to their memories of these events as they grow into adulthood. This would allow a more process-oriented approach to the problem of childhood memory of these traumatic experiences How do children understand and encode trauma in the absence of external support or in the presence of misinformation?

What is the effect of mood on memory processing? What is the role of parental interaction? What happens to the family dynamic when adults research their medical conditions and discover that they have been misinformed? Angier, Natalie , February 4. Intersexual healing: An anomaly finds a group. The New York Times. Anton, Linda Hunt The taboo on talking. Benedek, Elissa P.

Children and psychic trauma: A brief review of contemporary thinking. Eth and R. Pynoos Eds. Washington, D. David I am not alone! David , Winter. Clinicians: Look to intersexual adults for guidance. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Time to re-examine old treatment paradigms. Events spoken and unspoken: implication of language and memory development for the recovered memory debate. Conway Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fraker, Debbie , September Southern Voice, pp. Freyd, Jennifer J. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Goodman, G. Predictors of accurate and inaccurate memories of traumatic events experienced in childhood. Pezdek and W. Banks Eds. NY: Academic Press. Goodman, Gail S. Fivush J. Hudson Eds. NY: Cambridge University Press. Goodwin, Jean. Post-traumatic symptoms in incest victims. Holmes, Morgan , Winter. Holmes, Morgan An interview with Rachael. Hurtig, Anita L. Psychological evaluation of treated females with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 18 6 , He later speaks of a "discordance" or yet elsewhere "translocation between the phylisms for parent-child and lover-lover affectional bonding" b, p. How this, developmentally speaking, would relate to other chronophilias, or to coeval concepts of "traumatized lovemaps" or later ones such as of "agemaps", discussed above , or to incest, or finally to any gender preference, or any general "age homophily" age-preferential bonding , remains largely unclear.

Elsewhere he extends it to the "early pubertal boy or girl" , p. But how exactly parental bonding may become enmeshed with eroticism, whether within or beyond the nuclear family and whether before or after pubescence, Money does not say. He illustratively invokes the possibility of an attenuated Westermarck effect for intrafamilial situations paraphrasing: b, p.

This lack of extension and of extendibility of theoretical inferences, from pedophilia to its variants and onward to "the chronophilias", may express how little cultural and intellectual urgency there was, in this timeframe, to such extensions. Lates sexual abuse experts complained that "The psychology of pedophilia remains pretty much an enigma" Groth, , p.

But for decades the new sexual abuse literature remained uninterested in diversifying this menace in such terms as infantophilia, hebephilia, or ephebophilia. For instance, Money himself invokes the term hebephilia not earlier than , and only as a synonym for ephebophilia Money, a, p. There was also little interest, too, in Money's in part self-styled ethological angle, which he somehow had to weigh against anthropological concepts of socio-sexual regulation such as taboo.

A term Money coined in a article theorizing autism b , a phylism would be a "rudimentary building [block] of behavior that belong to all members of the species and are phylogenetically transmitted, not ontogenetically inculcated" , p. Thus, a second "phylismic" complication would arise, beyond the phylismic catastrophe of pedophilia, in cases of failed avoidance of incest - complicating not least in light of the ethological factoid that "In many of its expressions the bonding of lovers recapitulates mother-infant bonding" Money, b, p.

Chronophilia or the notion of a particular "age eligibility" Money, a, p. Both were encoded, if in neuropsychological "maps", then clearly also in social taboos, laws and related blueprints of social structure. Money specifically speaks of "the rule of age-avoidancy" , p. It was an effective norm, too; as one prominent evolutionary psychologist as Murdock, not cited by Money estimated in , "Age is probably the variable for which assortment - or similarity with one's mate - is the strongest" Buss, , p.

How original was Money's evolutionary psychological angle, given his lack of citation of earlier and coeval authors commenting on age assortment? Money's mids classifications of paraphilia e. However, they prefigured lates concepts such as Kurt Freund's "courtship disorder" - which however did not pertain to "the chronophilias". They more importantly echoed much earlier suggestions for a role for imprinting in "the paraphilias" including an arguable link between pedophilia and fetishism that goes back to Krafft-Ebing and notably went on to be criticized in the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, by Freud himself; see Janssen, forthcoming 2.

Money cites none of these sources in this early paraphilia writings; indeed he cites no sources on paraphilia in his earliest conceptual contributions. On "the chronophilias", even his later work remains synoptic, jargon-driven and essentially uninformed by ongoing theoretical and research work.

It remained in the domain of medical hypotheses, with the further warning that there was "no satisfactory hypothesis, evolutionary or otherwise, as to why they [pedophilia and ephebophilia] exist in nature's overall scheme of things" Money, b.

Not surprisingly, Money increasingly stressed the cultural regulation of "assortment", which increasingly foregrounded his cultural-regulatory definition of what counts as a paraphilia. For instance: in Money names "age" the first of "ten general principles, or constants, that lovemaps all over the world share in common [ sic ]", clarifying that "Lovemaps specify the ideal partner's age or age range, which may or may not be condordant with one own's age" b, p.

A decade onward he lists age rather as the second of ten "constants of sexual doctrines [in Christendom, at least]", writing that "Procreatively, it makes sense that age matching should prevail over age mismatching in social doctrines of courtship and mating" Money, , p.

But Money warned that even "age-matched sexual rehearsal play [may be] abusively penalized" ibid. Postulating the universality of age as a parameter of assortment, then, Money alternatively refers to the sphere of human or even primatological nature and that of what he identifies as partially anti-natural social doctrines. The concepts of paraphilia and chronophilia, accordingly, name both articulations of, and engagements with, strong norms. Unpacking this riddle, Money went on to deny that one could speak of mental pathology per se, and captured the then rapidly changing predicament of pedophiles in concomitant terms of an only ever cultural "imposition of norms": "part of the discussion of ideological norms" Money, a, p.

The criteria for normophilia Money's perhaps most telling of reifying neologisms , after all, "are not absolute but are variable, statistically, transculturally, and ideologically [ To complicate this, elsewhere Money wrote that "paraphilia" arises specifically either where lust is dissociated from love or rather where the former is actually rescued by being dissociated from the latter - a duality, in any case, he also attributed to Judeo-Christian society in general e.

A chronophilic relationship was by definition paraphilic , at the same time, where it precluded "reciprocity". All the same, even pedophilia, in Money's two Johns Hopkins case studies, could be characterized as combining "devotion, affection, and limerence", "comradeship with a touch of hero-worship" - ultimately as "harmless If anything, then, culture's "rule of age-avoidancy" was both variable and negotiable.

As observed at the outset, gender remains the Anglophone world's dictionary parameter of sexual orientation. Money introduced the word into clinical psychology in the mid, advancing beyond an earlier, largely sociological parlance of sex roles. What has been reviewed above is Money's much later mids nomination of erotic age preference as one of the subsidiary, or "other", but always imminently "paraphilic", dimensions of human sexual attraction.

In beginning to appreciate the gesture, one notes an evident dearth of critical attention across the humanities and the social sciences. Reasons for this may seem culturally intuitive given what Money signaled to be an increasingly aggressive moral, legal and medical circumscription of age disparity and "age-inappropriateness" across all sexual matters and terrains in the Anglosphere, especially since the nineteenth century and with considerable urgency since the late s.

This development has intriguingly dovetailed with the gradual demedicalization and decriminalization of "consenting adults", begging the question of chronophilia's the term and concept's resonance, and especially its dissonance, in the more extended contemporary history of sexuality Janssen, a. Most psychologists will, by arguable definition, congratulate this delimitation of scope.

But there is an arguably much more urgent set of cultural-conceptual-political questions touched upon, increasingly over the decades, in medical psychologist Money's own work.

Re-reading the latter, it can be said to invite a number of historical questions. Money's invitation was to look at pedophilia in the broader, cultural purview of sexuality's timetables. He spelled out in that inclusion of pedophilia in the DSM-IIIR was "historically legal and, for the most part, criminological, not scientific, logical, or systematic", in any case representing "the medicalization of behavior" c, p.

To all of the above but certainly to Money, sexual transgression required not just psychology but ongoing reflection on the acute, and many, tensions between culture, law and the psychological sciences e.

Self-nominated "developmental sexologist" Money frequently located himself at the end of an extended historical line-up of what he dubbed sexosophists : theologians, masturbation-curers, puritans, psychoanalysts, victimologists the last of whom he considered recyclers of Freud's seduction theory, although this pertained largely to posts American developments. Money's search for words and theories in grappling with non-normophilic desire in the immediate aftermath of the declassification of homosexuality, reflects how much clinical interest in and left-liberal public opinion on the nexus of age and sexuality have been shifting, indeed precisely as of the late s and in directions that Money among others tirelessly lamented and tried to moderate with an unrelenting appeal to and belief in medical science.

Yet where Money stated in a May interview that "You literally can't even do research on paedophilia any more" Money, a, p. Thus, even in the late s, "all that parents have to go by is pediatric folk sexology that is derived from a faulty prescientific ideology of the sexuality of childhood, puberty, and adolescence" Money, , p.

Moreover, and in part already to the author himself, Money's ethological allusion to an "inclusion" of parental, in "pedophilic", grooming patterns "entrainment of sexuoerotic phylisms": Money, a, p.

During the s and early s the grand universal kinship taboo against incest, became effectively refigured and professionalized as a type of child abuse. This importantly entailed the latter term's perusal beyond the clinical sciences, indeed soon by anyone from legislators, journalists, psychohistorians and feminists to conservative watchdogs, and from homophobes seeking to smear gays to LGBT activists advocating rank-closing by "consenting adults".

In the historical backdrop of this were still ongoing identifications of gay men as seducers and "recruiters" of minors Janssen, c. Money's article in fact appeared to have been occasioned by this still uncertain context: it was notably to show that boys involved with male pedophiles may grow up to be perfectly "heterophilic" not-"queer". At the same time it bemoaned mandatory reporting laws and emergent forms of legal retaliation that impeded study of human sexuality's "natural course", especially as it pertained to "juveniles" for Money's strong criticisms of victimological sexology and what he called its driving "antisexualism", see e.

Money, b and b, pp. Money, b. This was timely: many professionals agreed that mandatory reporting laws had grave implications both for therapeutic and research contexts e. Money saw unfold in the daily news the mids, erratic fallout over supposed preschool and "satanic ritual abuse". As a score of commentators have sketched, in this period, circum-Atlantic sexual culture became marked by important, even fundamental, shifts in the parametric entanglement of sexuality's gender, generationality and kinship.

Articulating these shifts and intrigues, Money's chronophilia names one tenured clinician's attempt to translate concomitantly new clinical and cultural sensitivities around childhood innocence and an fledging ethic of sexual diversity into a scientific taxonomy, psychology and etiology of bad sex and "sexual trauma". But the trope required a cultural context, a pervasive sex-negativity, to really make sense.

Hence, Money's "chronophilia" was an awkward gesture of sexological moderation eponymously and self-referentially symptomatic of recalibrated sexual mores. It made for a self-conscious and ambivalent psychologizing gesture. Serving aside Money on the DSM-III Psychosexual Disorders Advisory Committee, Robert Stoller opined that "perversion" had up to then largely been the domain of "superficial case reports with a buckshot spray of etiological theories, veneered with pseudoscience" , p.

Stoller, as most psychoanalysts, defended continued use of perversion b, pp. As child abuse therapists and activists in this timeframe, Money laid out a psychological-developmental frame for making scientific sense of the many ethical and moral strictures in this area and era.

Money's texts on paraphilia show that he was consistently well aware of the fact that these strictures precluded obtainment of elementary data or even a movement toward testable hypotheses.

Although he was a continent away from Michel Foucault who passed away in and is remembered for radical views on age-of-consent laws in France , Money was aware of sexology's vulnerability to becoming the manifesto of a sexual culture figuring forth the phenomena it could then persecute on its own terms. Voicing a psychologist's determination, Money's often giddy terminological gestures were to have the benefit of extending the bourgeois medicolegal concept of "sexuality" into the arguably more interpersonal, fuzzier, more fluid, and ultimately more humanizing terrains of "sexuoeroticism", "pairbondance", "limerence", and "lovemaps".

But Money's interventions were largely lost on the psychiatric establishment. For instance, searching for love in the DSM-5 will end one up only with "delusional disorder, erotomanic type" , the loved ones of the mentally ill, and the unfortunate lovers of people with personality disorders. To the APA, if anything, love is the obverse of "paraphilic disorder" - with the full force of the new pleonasm.

Chronophilia has come to name an ultimate battleground for these largely North American turns of phrase. Money's ethological focus contrasted sharply with then-emergent forensic psychological concepts of the paraphilic bond deployed, not to render "paraphilia"-burdened relationships open to ethological and evolutionary understandings, but to denounce, to dehumanize and finally simply to end, any "predatory grooming".

Despite these sharply diverging takes on the human animal, Money was comfortable in seconding victimologists' newly scientific investments in the mental soundness of strict "synchrony of lovemap age in reciprocal sexuoerotic rehearsal play" among "juveniles" Money, , p. In the mids Money was indeed one of the most ardent proponent of what Foucault was calling "the repressive hypothesis": the mobilizing idea that bourgeois society was suppressing sexuality, and that it was the sexologist's urgent task to undo this.

Sexology would cure culture-wide sexual debility by introducing a transparency into human, and especially childhood, nature Money, b. No more taboos! In his own estimation, however, Money's intellectual flamboyance barred him from siding with the up-and-coming victimologist whose universe was divided much too tidily into abuse and non-abuse.

Moreover, here was a new brand of sexology "habituated to the mythology of innocence and the latency period" Money, c, p. In the end, as a corrective to the new research and therapy "industry" Money, b around child sexual abuse of the time, Money's "chronophilia" proved too much of a stretch across a number of fronts. It interfaced poorly with just about any concurrent research context of erotic age orientation, in which the focus was variably but progressively being narrowed to sex offenders' erectile responses in work by Kurt Freund and co-workers , cognitive distortions in work by Gene Abel and co-workers , or brain abnormalities in work by Fred Berlin among others.

Money's interdisciplinary sexology impractically combined an anthropological patience with pre-scientific and anti-scientific taboos domestically imposed social conventions , an at times lyrical appreciation of the predicament of persecuted lovers, and a diagnostics of intrapsychic "tragedies" that were all-too-human yet at the same time corollaries specifically of Western "antisexualism".

Although his intuition of cultural overdrive was being voiced by many others during the s and s, it is clear on hindsight how little chance Money's scientific gestures stood, individually or in combination, of pleading with the New Victimology. The non-sexological term chronophilie was used incidentally in lates French texts and was re-coined by U.

Bruneau , originally in , to denote a "manic", obsessive interest in time-keeping. It figured in Bruneau's larger scope of chronemics, "the study of the concepts and processes of human temporality, or connections with time, as they are bound to human communication interactions" Bruneau, It should be noted that this goes back to the historical phantasm of the seducing adult male homosexual, of whom it was once ubiquitously conjectured that "The impulse to seduce is, like homosexuality itself, characteristic of arrested development" editorial to Psychiatric Quarterly, , pp.

Another text that can be cited here is anthropologist Gayle Rubin's well-known essay originally a conference paper , in which she locates "individuals who prefer cross-generational encounters" outside the "charmed circle" of "Good, Normal, Natural, Blessed Sexuality". An early text is that of Lafon et al. See especially Harkins In this timeframe, Money , p. Diederik F. Janssen Nijmegen, The Netherlands [Sexual Offender Treatment, Volume 12 , Issue 1] Abstract Pursuing a number of fashionable but irredeemably divergent scientific tangents, John Money's s through s work contains a protracted but ill-fated attempt to capture erotic age orientation in broader than strictly forensic-psychiatric frames.

Keywords: chronophilia, history of psychiatry, history of sexuality, John Money Despite various post-WW2 intellectual interventions, the dualism of normal and abnormal sexual interests has historically been crucial to twentieth-century Western clinical psychologists dealing with matters sexual. Naming and Defining "Chronophilia" Chronophilia was an etymologically unfortunate 1 , quasi-clinical and confused term that never caught on, and that in Money's own work raised more questions than it facilitated answering.

Lovemap and Age Largely ignoring then-emergent psychological constructions and typologies of "the pedophile" in clinical terms of, for instance, "emotional congruence with children", "fixated versus regressed offenders", and "cognitive distortions", Money postulated an inner-psychological sexuoerotic age , p.

Untimely Sex: Historicizing Money's Chronophilia As observed at the outset, gender remains the Anglophone world's dictionary parameter of sexual orientation. References Bruneau, T. Foss Eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Human mate selection. American Scientist, 73, Chivers, M. The rainbow becomes a spectrum.

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