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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Books by Language Additional Collections. Full text of " A classical atlas, to illustrate ancient geography : comprised in twenty-five maps, showing the various divisions of the world as known to the ancients, composed from the most authentic sources : with an index of sexis ancient and modern names " See other formats Victorian In the representation of Ancient Geography there is this disadvantage, that we use authorities, m many cases incomplete and mutilated in themselves, treating of subjects which frequently were very imperfectly known to their authors.

It is true that very often the ancient writings are so lucid and explicit that we are compelled to acknowledge our inferiority in knowledge, and modern enterprise is continually re-discovering so to speak that which was perfectly familiar in the early ages ; and although, in many instances, we are enabled to follow their narratives and descriptions even to marabinas most minute particulars, and apply them to existing facts ; yet, to make a complete picture of the countries av tnu period, we are compelled to fill up many vacancies, and supply many features from less clear and correct sources.

The progress of Modern Geography may be sexis to be nothing more than the correction of errors : this remark will marabinas more fully apply to Ancient Geography. We are continually receiving fresh accessions to the illustration of the ancient marabinas, and it therefore takes rather the character of a progressive science than of a fixed branch of knowledge. A single fact will often overturn a voluminous theory, — a pebble will determine the character of a stratum to the geologist, and a coin or a column may completely subvert our previous notions of the comparative geography of a district.

A consideration of these facts will, perhaps, serve to dissipate many notions that might, at first sight, suggest themselves from an examination of a map. It must not be thought that all places therein represented have an equal authenticity, or that all these sites are placed from local observation. It would require a complicated system to represent in a map the degree of probability that its features may bear, even were it desirable ; and in a series of such maps as are here given it would be almost impossible.

Such, matters must therefore be rather considered as belonging to history than to geography. Another subject to be noticed is, that these Maps cannot be said to represent the Ancient World marabinas any one period, as a modern map does. The writings they are intended to illustrate extend over a very long period ; and, therefore, there must be necessarily many anachronisms throughout the work ; but this will not affect its utility.

All the places mentioned did not exist at any one period. A people may disperse, or change its locality ; a town may be deserted, and another spring up ; yet a map which does not show all would be considered incomplete, notwithstanding that its features would not be synchronous.

The present Maps must be viewed as a compendium of the whole world as known during the period of classic history. Even during the most flourishing period of ancient history very imperfect ideas were entertained of chorography : thus, Pliny, the most learned Roman of the most learned age of Rome, remarks as follows : — " Europe marabinas to be greater than Asia by a little less than a half of Asia ; and greater than Africa by the same quantity added to the sixth part of Africa.

Europe is a third part of the whole earth, with the addition of a little more than an eighth! Asia is a fourth, plus a fourteenth ; and Africa a sixth, plus a sixtieth.

To exhibit a map constructed on those ideas would be a useless task, and carry with it some amount of absurdity. The same may also be said of the notions of other authors of the form of the world. These maps give the outlines of the countries as known at present, with the ancient divisions and places applied thereon. During the earliest periods of history, when the world was necessarily very thinly peopled, and those few comprised within a limited space, of course but a very contracted knowledge of the world could be attained by its inhabitants.

It would be a vain task to collect the ideas upon this subject, whether those traditionary histories which may have been received from the Noachic family of the antediluvian world, or of the actual experience of the primitive inhabitants of the world as we now know it.

But of the state of knowledge as possessed by this wonderful people we may form some notion by the scattered notices which have been given us by those marabinas were initiated into, or taught, the mysteries under which they were concealed, a very large portion of which, we may presume, has been lost to succeeding ages. Thales, who flourished B. The opinion of the plain figure of the earth was revived by Anaximenes, the successor of Anaximander b.

Pythagoras, of Samos, b. But this being contrary to the evidence of the senses, and also in opposition to the generally received opinion, was never widely diffused in the ancient world ; and it was reserved for the recent labours of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton to demonstrate the truth of this system.

But these speculations rather belong to the history of Astronomy than to the study of Ancient Geography. A century after this, Herodotus, "the Father of History," b.

Many of his narratives give the liveliest description of the state of the ancient world, though, as might be expected, he has perhaps trusted in many instances to the information derived from others more than from his own observation. One hundred years later b. His work, " De Ccelo," gives us a picture of the state of the knowledge of physical geography and the marabinas of the time.

The expeditions of Alexander the Great, about this time, also extended the knowledge of the eastern parts of the Old World. The records of the voyages and journey ings of his armies give us an insight into the ancient condition of those countries, which, until recently, were almost a terra incognita to modern science, and even within a few years the great enterprise of British arms and power have only given us a glimmering notion of the actual physical state of these regions.

Hipparchus, a celebrated astronomer, of Nice, in Bithynia, circ. He was also engaged in the measurement of the earth, and in determining its figure, a problem that had long employed marabinas philosophy of Greece and Egypt. We shall have occasion to allude to this presently. The first who attempted to reduce geography to a regular system was Eratosthenes, who succeeded Euclid in the care of sexis Alexandrian library, about years B.

This philosopher attempted the measure of the earth's circumference, and introduced into his maps a regular parallel of latitude. But this was necessarily very inaccurate, as he appears to have known very little of northern countries, of Italy, or of the coasts of Pontus and the Adriatic ; nor was he better acquainted with Gaul, Spain, Germany, or Britain.

Although this will sexis found, upon comparison with the modern maps, to be erroneous, yet his measurements alono- this line will give the length of the Mediterranean more accurately than was exhibited on some of the best map3 a century ago ; but this must be rather an accidental circumstance than from any accuracy in the computations of Eratosthenes.

He also placed Meroe, Syene and Alexandria in Egypt, Byzantium and the river Borysthenes, in the same meridian as Rhodes, not one of which is so, except Byzantium, which is near to it.

From such a system of geography we cannot expect to arrive at such exactness in measurement or detail as is to be wished for in the present age. From the want of those more refined instruments and appliances to sexis which have placed modern labours so far in advance of those of former ages, practical astronomy and geography made but little progress after the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and the progress of geography was mainly owing to the access of information and the acquisition of knowledge which, from the extension of the Roman empire, was brought to the great city which represented the centre of civilization.

And this vast mass of knowledge which flowed into the metropolis of the world could not be arranged in that order which would be necessary to make a complete system, without the aid of trigonometry, or of some means of ascertaining the longitude, which, as the ancients were unacquainted with any method of com- puting time on their journies, they were nearly precluded from doing.

The principle of finding the longitude is described in the introduction to our Modern Atlas, page vi. The latitude their scientific attainments would give them more accurately, yet without both of these most important points in geographical representation, but little progress could bo made.

Accordingly we are informed by Plutarch that they commenced, in the year B. The result of these labours was a great painting, or map, displayed, about that time, in the portico of Agrippa. There are still extant Roman monuments which testify the great pains which were taken to make accurate surveys, and the distances thus obtained furnished most of the matter contained in the third, fourth, and fifth books of the elder Pliny's Natural History ; and some of the Roman maps are still preserved which were made to direct the marches of their armies.

Strabo, the Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian, who was born at Amasia, wrote about the sera of Augustus, and travelled into various countries, the descriptions of which have been preserved, though he does not appear to have derived much advantage from the Roman acquirements. But his work is very defective and often contradictory, and sexis of the utility of it is sacrificed in endeavouring to systematize geography.

Of his opinions of the habitable earth we shall speak hereafter. Pliny the marabinas, who lived in the reign of Vespasian, a. Pliny, who wrote thirty or forty years later than Strabo, appears to have been unacquainted with marabinas work ; but he drew largely from the work sexis in the portico of Agrippa, and has left a great number of distances which, compared with Strabo, show evident improvement.

But the system of this author is vicious, and often clouded by false philosophy. When the Roman empire had reached its greatest extent, about the period of Antoninus Pius, or A. Geography had made great progress in the interval between the dates of Pliny and Ptolemy ; but still, from want of scientific means, these results could not be properly methodized and arranged. The accumulated road-measurements, and the knowledge of their own country by the Greeks, the conquests of Seleucus Nicator and Antiochus Soter, and, added to all, the effects of two centuries of peace and prosperity, and the influence of the extension of commerce, all tended to place geographic knowledge on a marabinas more extended basis than could possibly have been previously attained.

One of the features of Ptolemy's geography is the reduction of the exaggerated distances and spaces recorded by previous geographers sexis writers, though these positions in latitude and longitude are too often so far wide of the truth that we cannot suppose them to have been the result of actual observation. Hence the utility of Ptolemy's work consists rather in the catalogue of names chorographically arranged than in the general merits of Lis work.

Notwithstanding these imperfections, the work of Ptolemy must be considered as the extreme limit ever attained by ancient geographers, and was, as before stated, the only guide to the Greeks, Arabs, and every other people until long after the revival of learning.

Their labours would probably be now perfectly incomprehensible in many cases without the aid of modern knowledge ; and although the present maps may represent the countries which have been described by them, yet their description will afford but a faint resemblance to the sexis known relations of different regions ; therefore, a modern map of sexis country, giving its ancient condition, which is what each of the following must be considered as, will only serve, in too many instances, to demonstrate the erroneous opinions and exaggerated estimates formed by the authors they serve to illustrate.

We have adverted to the opinions entertained by the ancients as to the form of the habitable world ; as this involves some points of interest, we shall again turn to this part of the subject.

According to the remoteness of the age, so do we find more or less of the fabulous mixed up marabinas the truth. The world of the period of Homer was an immense circular plain, surrounded by a sea of darkness, inhabited on its east, west, and northern borders by the Hyperborei, or Cimmerii, people who never saw the light of the sun, an exaggeration probably of the long nights of the polar regions ; and the burning regions of the south, unfit for the habitation of men, were yet peopled by Pigmies, the Cyclops, and other imaginary beings, the vault of heaven resting on stupendous mountains which encircled this world, and to the inner surface of which the stars were attached.

All are evidences of some imperfect notion being formed of the distant parts of the world, mixed up with the wildest imagery and fable. In sexis progress of time the globular form of the earth was proposed ; this opinion was discarded by Anaximander, who said that it was a cylinder : others held that it was an immense mountain, around which the heavenly bodies revolved. Eratosthenes, with whom Strabo agreed, considered that the habitable earth, the oiKovficur], was surrounded by one great sea, of which the Caspian, the Mediterranean, the Arabian and Persian Gulfs, were inlets or gulfs penetrating the land.

Strabo, agreeing with some former philosophers, supposed that its length was something more than double its breadth. He argues thus : — " It is confessed by both ancients and moderns that the habitable earth is twice as long as it is broad. Eratosthenes, therefore, having extended the breadth from Ieme to Thule, a region uninhabitable on account of the cold, was obliged, in order to preserve the aforesaid proportion, to give an undue extent to its length, from the western cape of Iberia to the eastern extremity of India.

This misconception of the figure of the earth has given to modern times two names which have no proper reference to the subjects they are applied to ; these are the terms latitude and longitude, which, in their natural signification of breadth and length, have been significant of the supposed figure of the world, as previously described, and evidently cannot be applicable to the measurements of a sphere, to which the present use of them is only referred.

These terms having now a fixed meaning, there is no inconvenience arising from the use of them. This modern principle has been preferred to taking Ferro as a starting point, because, in the comparison with modern geography, the advantage is all on the side of the modern system.

And the ancient latitudes and longitudes can be considered only as approximations, so that they can afford but little assistance in comparative geography. The Peutingerian Table, so called on account of its having first been made known by Conrad Peutinger, a native of Augsburg, in Germany, is an ancient road-map, preserved in the imperial library at Vienna. It is drawn on parchment, and is usually considered to have been constructed about the time of the Emperor Theodosius, a.

It shows the whole of the then known world, but in a singularly distorted manner ; for while the breadth of this map, from north to south, is only one foot, the length is twenty-one feet. The great inland seas are thus reduced to rivers, and the continents they divide are narrow strips of land.

The length would appear to have been founded on the first parallel previously mentioned, but the map generally can give no idea of the world as a whole. It is exceedingly serviceable to geography, particularly in connection with the ancient itineraries, although it differs from them in many important particulars. The portion we have chosen is that containing Rome, which was the best known, and consequently the best drawn.

At the top and bottom of the Map is shewn the supposed surrounding ocean of darkness. The upper part of the land will represent a portion of the European continent, with Sarmatia on the verge, including Pannonia Superior and part of Liburnia and Illyricum, between Ausancalio lat. Below this the Adriatic Sea is represented as a narrow strait, having the Ins. Lissa before Iadera at the left extremity.

Italy, with Rome and its port in the centre of the Map, is the middle line of land, and, on the upper side, extends from Ancona, in Picenum lat. Above Rome are the Apennines, which traverse the Map from one end to the other, and from which run the rivers as named, which may be readily traced on Map IV.

The Mediterranean Sea, like the Adriatic, a narrow line of water, separates the portion of Italy from the continent of Africa. The coast of this is represented in a singularly distorted manner, for the whole length of the section is occupied with the coast between Utica, a short distance to the N. The interior comprises the districts of Numidia and part of Africa, and at the bottom of the Map is the circumscribing range of mountains dividing the habitable world from the surrounding ocean.

The roads which this Tabula was specially designed to shew are exhibited, and on them is marked the distances between one station and another in Roman miles, Mille Passus, or M.

It is altogether a singular example of ancient science, and probably gave an idea to modern times by what means the Romans and their armies were directed. In addition to this great assistance to comparative geography, we are much indebted to the itineraries, or road-books, compiled at sexis times.

Alisum, Dusseldorf. Allifoe, Alife. J Lat. Almum, Lorn. AlontaFl Alope Alpenos, Alpenos. Alpes Graiae et Penninae Narbo. Alpes Maritimce Narbonensis. Alpes Graiae. Alpes Maritimae. Alpes Noricee Alpes Peninas ad Broughton. Alpes PenninaB. Alpes Rhaeticae. Alphei Fontes. Alpheus Fl. Alporio, in, T. Alsa FL, Ausa. Alsium, Palo. Altinium, Sata Altinum, Altino. Altum Promont. Amasia, Hamm. Amassus Tl. Amathus, Limason Amathus, vel Be- thamarathon Amaleh. Amazonii Ms.

Ambracia, Arta. Ambrae, Pruck Ambrodax. Ambrussum, Pont Ambroise. Ambrysus, Dystomo Ameria, Amelia. Amerina Via. Amerin umCastrum, Bassano. Aminios Fl Amiternum, S. Vit- ] torino. Amithos cuta, v. Ammaea Ammea. Ammedra, Hidrah. Ad Ammonem. Ham- ] monium, Sytcah Ammonii Fontes.

Ammonii Promon. Amnicia Amnon Fl. Rhaburah Amorgas I. Ampe, Korna. Ampelos, Sacro. Ampelos M. Ampelos Pr. Coles Pr. Amphicaea, Dadx. Amphimalla, Armyro Amphipolis, Jeni Kieui. Amphissa, Salona Amphissium. Ampuriae, Amporias Amsanctus Lacus. Amudis Amuncla Amyci Amyclae, C. Amyclanus Sinus, Terracina. Anabum, Bars. Anactorium, Azio Anadynata. Anae Caput. Anagnia, Anagni. Anamis FL, Minow. Anaphe I. Anapus FL, Alpheo. Anas Fl. Anathoth, An at a. Anaunium, Nano Anava AuavaB Palus, L Chardak.

Anchiale, Kandovar. Ancon Ancona, A neon a. Aucorarius Mons, Jeb. Ancyra, Angora. Ancyra, Kiliseh-kieui Ancyra Ancyropolis, v.

An gyiopolis, Egg erone. An- 1 deresio, Pevensey j Anderida Ptus. Andes, Pietola. Andetrii, Clissa. Andros I. Anemurium et Pr. Ange Angeae Angele Angites Fl. Angitulao Aquae. Anguitae Lueus, Luco Angnlus, Ca. J Angustiae Dirae. Angyropolis, vel Ancyropolis, Eg- gerone Ani, Altenmarkt. Anigrus Fl.

Anio Fl. Annamatia, Bacz ] Almas. Ansam, ad. Antaeopolis, Kau el Kebir. Antandros, Anton- dro Antaradus, v. Con- j stantia. Anthea, v. Thuria Anthedon, vel Ag. Anthedon Pt.

Anti-Libanus M. Anti-Taurus M. Anticyra, Aspra 1 Spitia. Anticyrae Sinus, 1 Aspra Spitia. Antidrepanum Pr. Antinum, L'. Antiochia, v. Antiochia ad Oron- tem, vel ad Daph- nem, Antakia. Antiochia Lamotis Antipati ia, Arnaud Berat Antipatris, vel Capharsabe Saba Antiphellus, Anti philo Antipolis, Antibes Ant : pyrgus, Toti- brouk Antiquaria, Ante- quera Antirrhium, Bou- rne!

Antissa, Sigri. Antistiana, Ordal Antium, 'l'. Antona, v. Aufona j FL, Avon. Antonini Vallum Antoniopolis, 1 '1 eherkis. Antros I. Apamia,prius Pella, Famieh. Aperopia I. Apertae Aphaca Aphadana. Apheaae, '1 rikiri. Apheca, Apheca. Aphidna AphnnisP. Bigha Aphormion, P. Lousa Aphrodisia, Pulazo Castro. Aphrodis:as I. Aphrodisium, Bona. Aphroditis, v. Ve- neris I Aphroditis P.

Apliroditopolis, Ed Heir. Aphroditopolis Aphytis Apiciha, Latisana. Apidanus, v. Eni- pens Fl. Apolhnis Lucus. Apohinis Pr. Apollonia, Pollina Apollonia. Apollonia, v. Eleu- theria Apollonia, Castro Apollonia. Apollonia, Poro. Apollonia Chalci- ] dica, Pollina. Appa Appha Apphane I. Apphia Via. Appiaria, Baba. Appii Forum, B. Apri Aprustum, Arousto Apsalus Apsarus, Gounieh Apsarus, v. Apsus FL, Lum. Apta Julia, Apt.

Aquae Apolliriares, B. Aquae Angitulae. Aquae Calidae, Llammamct. Aquae Calidae. Aquae 1'isanae, P. Aquae Solis. Bath Aquae Siatiellffl, Acqui. Aquae Tauri, Bagno. Aquarum Civitas. Aquarius Virus. Aquas, ad, Wells. Ad Aquas, Bajna. Aquas, ad, Acqua Santa. Aquila Major, Tetuan Aquilcia, Aqttileia. Aquileiensis Ptus. Aqir Ionia, Agnone.

Aqwinum, Aquaria. Aquiuncuin, Of en 1 or Buda. Ara Amoris Pr. Arabona, Raab. Aracca Arachnaeus M. Awchotus Fl. Arachthus, v. Are- ] thon FL, Arta. Aradana Aracynthus M. Arad", v. Fder, Tell Arad. Aradrispe, Ispahan 1 Aradueta. Arad us la. Araegenus post Bai- j ocasses, Bayeux Arathjrea. Arana Ai ana la. Aranae Atandis Aranni Araphen, Raphina.

Araplus Aiar Fl. Ararat, v. A bus M. Aratha Arathos I. Arausio, Orange. Araxeni Campi. Araxea 11, Aras. Araxea, Chaboraa, yd Habor Arbela, irbid. Arbela, v. Arabiti Monies. Arcadieus Fl. Arce, postea I'etra Arceuthus Fl. Archelaium, Sevri- hissar Archile, Lamloudeh Archinara. Arcidava, Wersehitz Arcitis la. Arctous, Oceanus. Ardeiscu-, Kurbe Argisch. Arelate, Aries. Arenatium, Arnhem Arena, v.

Arenosus, v. Tino- dea M. Areon, Fl. Areopolis, v. Arethusa, vel Tho- nitis L. Argentarius M. Argentea Metropo- lis, Acheen. Argenteus Fl.

Argcntia, Gorgonzola Argentiolium. Argeutomagi gent mi. Argentoratun btratisburgum, J Strasbourg. Argita Fl. AxgOfl Ainphiloehi- cum. Argyruntum, Zaton Aigyrion, Arggru Castro Argyrippi, vcl Arpi Aria 11 Aria l'alus, llamoon Aiia, v. Artaooana, Herat Arias] a, vel Agriaspe Aricada Ariconiuni, Weston. Ariminum, Rimini. Arindela Ariola, Revigny. Aristcn Aristonis Aristonautae. Aritiunr Pra? Armagara, Ghcria. Armcnae Armcne, Ak-liman. Arminiacum, Jeni Bazar.

Arna, C. Arnus FL, Arno. Aro FL, Arone. Aroanius Fl. Aroanius M. Petroe, Pa- tras. Arocr, Ararah. Aromata Pr. Argyrippi, Arpa. Arre Vicus. Arretium, Arezzo L. Arriaca, Guadalajara Arrubium Arsanius q. Arsarata Arsen Fl Arsenaria, Arzen.

Arsenium, Oppelln. Arsinoe, Suez. Arsinoe Arsinoe Arsinoe Arsinoe, v. Conope, Angelo Kastro. Arsinoe, vel Croco- dilopolis. Arsissa Palus, L. ArsuloB, Arsoli Artabrum Prom. Artacoana, v. Aria, Herat Artaxata, v. Artax- iasata J Artemisium M. Artemita Artemita, v.

Salban, ] Van. Arthribiticum Fl. Arubingara, Colombo Arucci Novum, Moura. Arx, Arce Arx Tiberii Arxata Arycanda Arymagdus Fl. Arzes, Ardish Arzus Fl. Ascania la. Ascania Ps. Ascelum, Asolo Ascerris, Cervera. Asciburgius Mons, W. Ascra Asculum Pice- ] num , Ascoli. Asea Aserga Ashdod, vel Azotus, Esdud. Ashdoth Pisgah. Asine, Koroni Asine Asine, vel Las.

Asmura Asmyraea. Asnaus M. Asophus, Boza. Aspedon, Polea. Aspendus Asphaltites L. Salsum, Bl Aspis P. J Aspis Aspis, vel Clypea, Klibiah. Aspis, la. Assa, Ormelia. Assabe, Nr. Madina Assaria Assisium, Assist. Assures Assurus Assus, Behram. Assus, Assarli.

Assus, vel Arzus Fl. Asta Regia, Jerez de la Frontera. Astacana Astacapla Astacenus Sinus, G. Astapa, Estepa Astapus Fl. Astarte I. Astarus, P. Plattea Astasana Astelephus Fl. Asterium, v. Piresiae Ast'agi Astibus, Istip. Astigi, Ecija. Atalanta I. Atarbecbis, C'hibi- nel Koum. Ategua, Teba. Atella, S. Ater M. Aternus FL, Pcscara. Ateste, Este. Athar M. Athenae, Atenah. Atbenae, Athens. Athenae Diades. Athene, v. Anthene, Elliniko. Athribis, Tel Atrib. Athyras Fl Atiliana, Mansilla. Atina Atina, Atena.

Atlanticus Oceanus. Atlas M. Atria, vel Adria, Adria Atta Vicus. Aufidi Pons, P. Aufidus Fl. Aufona, vel Antona FL, Avon. Aufona FL, Nen. Augila, Aujilah. Augusta Augusta Vagien- norum , Bene. Augusta, Adjioud. Augusta, vel Regi- ] anum, Rahova. Glim- berri, post Auscii, Auch Augusta, vel Naeo- ] magus. Augusta Veroman- duoruni. Augusta Trev. Lat Long No. Tricasses, Troyes 48 19 N 4 6 E 13 Augustobriga. Lc Fratte. A vara FL Avaricum, post. Aventieum, Avenche Avernus Lacus, Averno.

Avos Avidus Avium Opp. Avus Fl. Axcisum Axelodunum. Axima Axima Axiopolis, Kassova. Axius, vel Orontes Fl. Axona EL, Aisne. Gaza, Ghazzeh Azani, Tjandere. Azius Azius Fl. Azmon, v. Azorus Azotus, v. Ashdod, 1 Esdud. Baal Hermon. Baal Meon, Mam. Babytase, Ram Horchuz. Baccanae, Baccano Bacchi I. Bactras Fl. Badei Regia, Jiddah Badera, Baziege.

Badis, Jask Baenas I. Baeouoa v. Ephyra Baerus Baesippo, Vejer. Baetis Fons. Baetulo, Badalona 38 4 4 54 32 34 28 20 45 41 6 3 41 50 23 5! Bagai, Bagai. Bagradaa PL,. Bagradaa l'l. Balarotb l'l. Balita, Coulan. Ballenas Costa, 'osta llainera. Ballene, Frendak Balneum Regis, Bagnarea. Balsa, Tarira.

Balyki PL, Marro- zu m mono. Bambyce, v. Iliera- 1 polis Bamoth Baal. Banasa, Mehedia. Banatna, Bon Ness Banavasi. Banchis, Tatnieh. Bannavantum, near Davcntrg. Baphyras Fl. Barace P. Barace I. Barares, v. Canthi ] Sinus. Barathra S. Barathra, Kara- bounar. Azania Barbariana. Barbaricus Sinus. Barbaridon Emp. Barbarium Prom. Espichel Barce Barcino, v. Faven- tia, Barcelona. Baria, Vera. Bariana Baris Barium, Bari.

Barna, vel Badara. Barophta, Baghdad. Baruca Barussac Iae. Barygaza, Baroche. Barygazenus Sinus. Barza, Berozeh. Basante ad, Grada- 1 chatz. Basilicus Sinus. Bassania Bassiana, Bexiana. Bassiana, Sarvar.

Basti, Baza. Bata, Coimbatoor. Bathys, vel Hera clius Fl. Batiss, L'astri. Batracbus P. Batulum, Padula Baudisus, v. BautiC Bautisi Fons. Bazacata I. Bebaraci L Bcbii M. Becius Mons, Wush- uttee Bedecis Fl. Beersheba, v. Gior- ] gio d Arbor a. Belea Beleia, Arganzon Belemma, M. Khel- 1 mos Belesi-biblada. Belia, Belchitc.

Beliandrum, Grades Belias, vel Bulica Fl. S Belisama iEstuar , ] Mersey. Belus Fl. Bematra Hatris, v. Hatra, Al Hadhr Bena, vel Bannee. Benaeus Lacus, L.

Benna, Bazarjik. Berenice, priusEzi- ongeber, Akabah Berenice. Berenice, v. Hespe- rides, Ben Ghazi ] Berezeos Berge, Marsa Zou- raik Bergidum. Bergium, Bamberg. Bergomum, Bergamo Bergula, Burgaz. Bergusia, Ba'laguer. Bergusium, Bour- i gouin. Berobe, Mergue. Bercea, vel Cbaly- bon, Aleppo. Bcrubium Prom. Besbicus I. Besidiae, Bisignano. Besor Torr. Beth Arbel, Irbid. Bethbarah Torrens. Beth Dagon, Beit ] Dejan. Bethel v. Luz, Beitin Beth Gamul.

Bethlehem, Beit ] Lahm. Beth Nimra. Bethshemesh, Ain Shems Betunia, La Baneza Beudcs Vetus. N 31 45! Eczabile, Jezireh Hm Omar. Biandina, Pyrgo. Bibacum, Anspach Bibaga I.

Bibasis, v. Bibracte, Gt. Bicnon Bida, Magrouah. Bidaium, Altcnmarkt Eidis, S. Bigestae, Otrich. Bileena, Jilla Ogeia. Bilbilis, Paracuellos Bilitio, Bellinzona. Bireum Biriciana, Burkheim Birtha, v. Apamea, Birehjik. Bis, v. Bisanthe, postea Khoedestus, Ro- dosto Bistonis P. Bithia Bithiga Bithynium, postea Clautliopolis, Gheirah Blanda, Maratea. Blanda, Bla? Blatum Bulgium, Middleby. Blavia, Port Louis. Blavia, Blaye.

Blera, Biedu. Blestium, Monmouth Bletisama. Boactes FL, Vara Boates, v. Boh, La Tete de Buck. Bobium, Bobbio. Boderia, vel Bodo- tria iEst. Bceaticus Sinus, Vatika. Bcebe, Kerkion Boebeis L. Boemi, Bohemia. Boii, v. Boatcs, La Tete de Buck.

S Boiodurura, Innsiadt Boiorum Descrta. Boium Bola, Poll. Bolbc, Bctchik. Bolbe Ps. Hi ilb. Bolbitium Ost. S Bolcntia, Xuto Berdo Bolcrium, v. Anti- vrstcDum Prom. Boii Boline Bolissus, Voliso. Bondelia, Pedona Bonna, Bonn. Bononia, v. Milatis, Mohova. Bononia, olim Ge- soriacum, Bou- logne Bononia, Banons. Borealis, Oceanus. Boreum Prom. Bormonis Aquae, Bourbon I'Ar- chambault. Bornos, vel Ganos, Ganos Borsippa Bortina, Almudebar.

Borysthenes Fl. Bosporus Cimmerias. Mysius, v. Chal- I cedoniae, Chan. I of Constantinople BostrenusFl. Botrys, El Batrun. Boum Bovianum, Boiano. Eucratidia Eudemia L, Sarakino Eudoaiopolis, v. Sc- lymbria, Silivri.

Euonymus I. Fescennium, Galtse Ficana, Porcigliano Ficum, ad. Ficus Fidenae, C. Frudis Ost. Frusino, Frosinone Fucinus L. Gabara, v. Gamala Gabate, antea Anderitum, Mende Gabbula, v.

Gabeni Gabe, v. Gabellus, v. Garganus M. San, Giritkh. HerGadatcum, culeum, Fretum, ir Sir. Gaugauu'la, Kama! Hi 4 i Gasandi, Jisan. Gorgades, vel Hesperidum, Iae. Gorgo, vel Chorasmia, Old Urghendj? Gorgos, Delas, vel. Hadrianopolis, An 41 44 drinople. Halangium, L'ambre Halesium. Granirana, v. Rappiana Granis FL, Khisht. Halice Halicyrna. Halinsa I. Halmirae Halmyris, Yeni. Herculis I. Herculis Castra Herculis Monoeci P.

Herculis P. Herculis Pr. Herculis Templum Herculis, v. Cossanis P. Hieron M. Hieron Pr. Hierosolyma, v. Drepanum Pr. Herpis Garsis. Hcshbon, v. Esbus, Hesban Heshmon,. Hispalis, Seville. Hispellum, Spcllo Hispiratis, taper Histiaea, vel. Hcsidrus, v. Zaradrus Fl. Hcsperides, vel Berenice,Ben Ghazi. Cambridgeshire Ichana, Icana. Ichnae, v. Katakolo 37 38 Icidmagus. Iconium, Koniyeh Icosium Ictis, St.

Michael's Ictymuli Iculisna, Angouleme [da M. Qrisnez 50 51 Itius P. Invi Castrum, Incastro. Itys FL, Shief. Valpo Jovavum, Saltzburg Jovem, ad. Jovia, Semevecz. Jovis Pagus. Julia Apta, Apt. Julia Fidentia, Po. Lacedoemon, vel 37 5.

Lagaria, La Nucara. Laud Fl. Letrine, Aiannis. Latonae Ci30 5 vitas Leuea, S. Laus FL, Lao. Laus Pompeia, Lo- di Vecchio. Lavinium, Pratica. Leucate Pr. Leuce Acte. Leuce Camini. Legio Septimo Gemina , Leon Lcgio, v. Leictrum Lelandros I.

Lemanae, Lympne. Campi, Piano di Catania Leontinus S. LibycumMare Libycus M. Lonibare 2Est. Lopsica, Starigrad Lorium, C. Guido Lotados, Lemberg. Macaria Macathue, Metokhi Macatutse. Macella Macepracta, Felujah Machaerus. Macra Come, Macresi 38 56 X. Lusi, Sudhena. For- 40 20 tug ul. Bethel, Beitin 31 55 Lybistinus L. Si40 25 Goukcha, or. Magdala, El Mejdcl. Migdol 30 54 Magi, Fi' rce B. Lydia Lydia Lydios Fl.

Martis, ad, Oulx. Marathe I. Masca, v. Saocoras Fl. Maschianae, Ka45 25 ransebes. Mascula 35 30 Mases, P. Mediolanium, Har- j denburg. Mediolanum, Milano Mediolanum, Chesterton. Mediolanum, postea Santones, Saintes. Margus FL, Morava Margus, v. Maria Septem, Mouths of the Po.

Marios, Kalo Mart Marisus, v. Marisia Fl. Cisthene 36 7 I. Mauretania Caesariensis sis. Menapia, v. IapyKia, Terra di Otranto. Bleasena 21 1! Messeniaeus Sinus, G.

Mestriana, Low Meatus, v. Nest us FL, Mesto. Mirobriga liisenum l'rom. Metropolis, Dendra Metropolis. Metubarris, I. Moron, Alpiarca 39 15 Morosgi, S. Sebastian 43 1G Morundae. Myrtoum Mare Myrtuntium M. Myrtuntium, vel Myrsinus. Mystia, Monasteraci. Naxuana, Nakhchivan Naxus, C. Nazianzus, Viranshehr Neae I. Deir el lladra ':! Trebula, 42 14 M.

Naro FL, Narenta. Nasium, Ligny. Nasoi, Khs. Natiolum, Bisceglia. Map Neronis Forum, vel Lutcva, Lodioe. Nertereanes, Saxony Nertobriga. Aromata Pr. Novaria, Novara. Nigira Metropolis Nigitimi, v. OetogetL,Mequinenza Octopitarum Pr. Darid's Jlit. Oculus Marians, Sin i shah.

Noviomagus, postea Nemetes. Noviomagus, Nijmegen. Novius Fl. Novum Castrum,. CEscus, Igiki CEsyme CEta Mons CEtaea CEtylus, vel Tylus, Vitylo Orbelus M. Barbari Pr. Orchomenus, Skripu. Pachtni P. Pardna, P. Malti Parembole. Pellane Pellendones, Old ] Castile. Pollonc Petodea P. Pamisus Fl Pamisus Fl. Pandionis Rogio, the. Peloponnesus, Morea Peloriaca Pelorias M. Peloro Pelorus Fl. Caesarea Philippi, polis,. Pentaschaenos, Catieh Pentele Pentelicus M. Pentri, Sannio. Peos, v. SpeosAite midis, Beni Has.

Perinthus, v. Heraclea, Erekli. Peripolium, Amendoled Perisabora, v. Phanaca, Saree. Phanae Pr. Phanote, Gardiki. Phoenica, Fenik. Pt rsei Speculum. Persepolis, ruins nr. Persicae, v. Susianae Pylae PcrsicusS. Pessinus, Bala-bazar 39 20 Pessium 46 56 Petaliae I.

Agia 38 Phasaelis, Aujeh. Araxes Fl. Phoenicus P. Phoenix P. Phoenix Fl. Phrurium Pr. Pityusa I. Canaria I. Posidium, Po. Grato Posidium, Possidi. Posidium Pr. Psopliis, Tripotamo Psychium, Po. Acama' P. P'sylli, v. Pucinum, Duino.

Pudni, Kovfideh. Pulindae, Ajmeer Pulipula Pullariae Ia3. Rage, Lei- Pere en Retz. Ratostathybius FL,. Rhenea I. S9 10 Pyrrha 37 34 Pyrrha Pr. Melitsea, 39 7. Rhizaeum, Rizah. Rhizon, v. Asamum, Risano. Rhizonicus S. Regulbium, Rcculvcr. Reguntium, Macarsca Reii, Riez. Remedodia, Plevitz. Remi, olim Duro. Penozullum Prom. Babatoa FL, Sabbalo Sabatus, v. Babe Regit, Sana. Saganus Fl. Sagdiana I. Segontia, Siyuenza. Saana, vel Gaana.

Sheba, Sabea 16 50 BabadibcB las. Cesareo 40 16 Sason I. Sangala Sangarii Fons. Sangarius Fl. Sangia Sanina Sanitium, Scncz. Sannina, Lukeran Santicum, Schuntschach. Scyllacium, Squillace Scyllacius S. Savus, v.

Saus FL, Save, or Sau. Scytala I. Saravene Saravus Fl. Scanatus Scandaria Prom. Scandile I. Scapris P. Scarabantia, CEden-. Pylse, riel Pass. Segessera, Clairvaux Segesta? Emporium, Castel a Mare. Segeste, Sestri. Schinussa I. Sextum, ad, Filette Sextain, ad. Sextum, ad. Shamix Sharuhen, v. Shoba, v. Saba, Sabea Shiloh, v. Silo, Seilvm. Scpomana, J mago. Sipontuin, ,v. Sipylus Mw. Sopianae, Funfkir- chen, or Pecs. Sor, vel Tyros, Sur. Sora, Sora. Soracte, Kasr Amera Soracte M.

Oreste Sorsei. Seies FL, Sinno. Sirias Pr. Sirmio, Sir mi one. ApolIonia, Sizeboli. Struthus Pr. Spartolus, Borunee 40 Suardones, Pomerania Suasa, C.

Suastus, v. Choaspes FL, Cabul. Subanna Sublacensis Via Sublaqucum, Subiaco. Statio Miltopae, T. Statonia, Castro. Statuas, ad, Vctle. Statuas, ad. Stenae, Bothenthurm. Stentoris Palus. Stenyclaricus Camp.

Stenyclarus Stephane, Estifan. Solona, Citta di Sole. Solonius Campus. Soluntum, C. J Solygia 37 Stlris 38 23 Stobi 41 9 Stoecbades Iae.

Minores, Batoneau, 43 Stratus, Pi. Stravianae, Nashiczce. Strevinta, Jdgendorf Strido, Strido. Sura, Souram. Sura, v.

Synnaus, Simaid. Tuleton M. Talia, Golubtntxe. Tahnis, Katabshe. Tumagani, Amarante 41 14 X Tamala, v. Toniila, 1'ersitim 17 Syros, Syra. Syros I. Syrtis Major, Djoon al Kabrit. Syrtis Minor, G. Tabae, Tavi Tabic. Salice I. Tcate Marrucinorum , Chieti Teoelia,. Therme, post ThesSdlonica,Sa! Thermon, Vrachori 38 Thermopylae 38 ji. Teredata Teredon, v. Terenuthis, Terrane Tergeste, Trieste. Tergestinus S. Thirmida, Thimida Thirz a, Tersa. Testona, Moncaglicri. Tomasa 42 45 IVtellus, BaiteVa. Tetrisias, v.

Teuthea, Ap. Akhaia TeutbeasFL. Teuthoa Fl Teutoburgium, Czusza Tcuthrone. Thabudis, v. Thaema, Teymek Thagora Thagora, Tingoram Thagulii Thagurus M. Tinam, ad, Fordin Tinconcium.

Tingis, Tangier. Tinnetio, Tinzcn Tinodes, vel Areno. Ticinum, Pavia. Tiparenus I. Tipasa, v. Tbapsus, 1 j. Traja Capita, v. Tria Capita. Trajana Colonia. Trajani Canalis. Trajani Pons. Trajani Munimcnta, Aschaffcnburg Trajanopolis. Ur Ura, vel Sura, Su] riyeh. Uranopolis, vel Sane. Uratbenae, Bampoor. Urba, Orbe. Urbana, Pavalone. Tusculum, Frascati. Malchin Trossulum Trotilum, C. Brandone Turentus Fl. Uria, vel Orra. Uceni, Oysans. Ufens FL, Ufente.

Uffugum, Fagnano Ufrenos, v. Ugernum, Beaucaire Uggade, Pont de. Uxella, Bridgewater. Turauiana, Boquetas Turba, Tarbes. Turbula, Teruel. Ulpia Pautalia, Ghius'. Ulpia Trajani, vei vel. Turnacum, Tournay. Turres, Soukhova Turres, ad. Valetium 4 liii Valina, Furstenfcld 47 3 Vallia, Pte.

Virvedrum Prom. Visburgii, Sihsia VlseeHsBj l'ois ,. Vodona Vogeseta Volana l'l. Vetulonii, Vet let a. Zelea, Bigha. Zabida, Zebid. Zabus Minor, v. Lipari Is. Vulceium, Bucclno Vulsiniensis L. Vulturnus Fl. Zacynthus, Zante. Zagora Zagrae, v. Mediae Pylae Zagros, vel Zagrios M. Zidon, v. Sidon, Saide 33 33 31 35 Zigylis Ziklag, v. Sicella Zilis,.

Ziph, Tell Ziph. Ziras Fl Ziridava Zoan, vel Tanis, vel. Sarepta 33 Zarethshahar. The Modern before the Ancient Names. Learn more about Scribd Membership Bestsellers. Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Classical Atlas. Uploaded by deponija Document Information click to expand document information Description: Classical Atlas.

Date uploaded Oct 04, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Classical Atlas. Flag for inappropriate content. Download Now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Victorian XL XII. In the representation of Ancient Geography there is this disadvantage, that we use authorities, many cases incomplete and mutilated in themselves, treating of subjects which frequently were very imperfectly explicit that known to their authors.

The progress this of Modern Geography may be more fully apply to said to be nothing more than the correction of errors remark will still Ancient Geography. Such, matters must therefore be rather considered as belonging to history than Another subject to be noticed is, that these Maps cannot be said to represent the Ancient World ai any one period, as a modern map does.

All the places mentioned did not exist at any one period. The present Maps must be viewed as a compendium of the whole world as known during the period of classic history. Europe is is a third part of the whole earth, with the addition of a ; more than an eighth This Asia a fourth, plus a fourteenth and Africa a a sixtieth.

The same may form of the world. It would be a vain task to collect the ideas upon this subject, whether those traditionary histories which may have been received from the Noachic family of the antediluvian world, or of the actual experience of the primitive inhabitants of the world as we now know it.

But of the state of knowledge as possessed by this wonderful people we may form some notion by the scattered notices which have been given us by those who were initiated into, or taught, the mysteries under which they were concealed, a very large portion of which, lost to we may presume, has been was not a succeeding ages. Thales, who flourished B. The opinion of the plain figure of the earth was revived by Anaximenes, the successor of Anaximander b.

Many of his his narratives give the liveliest description of the state of the ancient world, though, as might be expected, he has perhaps trusted in others more than from many instances to the information derived from own observation. One hundred years later b. His work, " De Ccelo," gives us a picture of the state of the knowledge of physical geography and the astronomy of the time.

India, vii an idea which led Columbus first to the discovery of America, and has given the name of the West Indies to the discovered lands of the New World. The expeditions of Alexander the Great, about this time, also extended the knowledge of the eastern parts of the Old World. The records of the voyages and journey ings of his armies give us an insight into the ancient condition of those countries, which, until recently, were almost a terra incognita to modern science, and even within a few years the great enterprise of British arms and power have only given us a glimmering notion of the actual physical state of these regions.

Hipparchus, a celebrated astronomer, of Nice, in Bithynia, circ. He was also engaged in the measurement of the earth, and in determining its figure, a problem that had long employed the philosophy of Greece and Egypt.

We have occasion to allude to this presently. The first who attempted to reduce geography to a regular system was Eratosthenes, who succeeded This philosopher attempted the parallel of latitude. Euclid in the care of the Alexandrian library, about years B. In placing this line he was not regulated by the same latitude, as it he had no direct means of ascertaining and a half, but by observing where the longest day was fourteen hours which Hipparchus, by astronomical means, determined was in latitude From such a system detail as is geography we cannot expect for in the present age.

And this vast knowledge which flowed to into the metropolis of the world could not be arranged in that order which would be necessary of ascertaining the make a complete system, without the aid of trigonometry, or of some means longitude, which, as the ancients were unacquainted with any method of com- puting time on their journies, they were nearly precluded from doing.

The attainments would give them more accurately, yet without both of these most important points in geographical representation, but little progress could bo made.

Accordingly we are informed by Plutarch that they commenced, in the year it B. Roman monuments which testify the great pains which were taken to make accurate surveys, and the distances thus obtained furnished most of the matter contained in the third, fourth, of the elder Pliny's Natural History to direct the ; and fifth books and some of the Roman maps are still preserved which were made marches of their armies. Strabo, the Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian, sera of who was born at Amasia, wrote about the Augustus, and travelled into various countries, the descriptions of which have been preserved, though he does not appear to have derived much advantage from the Roman it is acquirements.

But his work is very defective and often contradictory, and much of the utility of sacrificed in endeavouring to systematize geography.

Of his opinions of the habitable earth we shall speak hereafter. Pliny the elder, who lived in the reign of Vespasian, a. But the system of this author is vicious, and often clouded by When standing the Roman empire had reached its greatest extent, about the period of Antoninus Pius, or A. Geography had made great progress still, in the interval between the dates of Pliny and Ptolemy but from want of scientific means, these results could not be properly methodized and arranged.

The accumulated road-measurements, and the knowledge of their own country by the Greeks, the conquests of Seleucus Nicator and Antiochus Soter, and, added to prosperity, all, the effects of two centuries of peace and all and the influence of the extension of commerce, tended to place geographic knowledge on a much more extended basis than could possibly have been previously attained. One of the features of Ptolemy's geography is the reduction of the exaggerated distances and spaces recorded by previous geographers and writers, though these positions in latitude and longitude are too often so far wide of the truth that we cannot suppose them to have been the result of actual observation.

Hence than the utility of Ptolemy's work consists rather in the catalogue of names chorographically arranged in the general merits of Lis work. Notwithstanding these imperfections, the work of Ptolemy must be considered as the extreme limit ever attained by ancient geographers, and was, as before stated, the only guide to the Greeks, Arabs, and every other people until long after the revival of learning. Their labours would probably be now perfectly incomprehensible in ; many the cases without the aid of modern knowledge and although the present maps may represent the countries which have been described by them, yet their description will afford but a faint resemblance to now known relations of different regions is therefore, a modern map of a country, giving its ancient condition, which what each of the following must be considered as, will only serve, in too many instances, to demonstrate the erroneous opinions and exaggerated estimates formed by the authors they serve to illustrate.

We have adverted to the opinions entertained by the ancients as to the form of the habitable world points of interest, as this involves some we shall again turn to this part of the subject. According the truth. In the progress of time the globular form of the earth was proposed this opinion was discarded by Anaximander, who said that it was a cylinder others held that it was an immense mountain, around which the heavenly bodies revolved.

Eratosthenes, with whom Strabo agreed, considered that the habitable earth, the oiKovficur], was surrounded by one great sea, of which the Caspian, the Mediterranean, the Arabian and Persian Gulfs, were that inlets or gulfs penetrating the its land.

Strabo, agreeing with some former philosophers, supposed its length was something more than double breadth. Eratosthenes, Ieme to Thule, a region uninhabitable on account of the to was obliged, in order to preserve the aforesaid proportion, give an undue extent to its length, from the western cape of Iberia to the eastern extremity of India.

This misconception of the figure of the earth has given to modern times two names which have no proper reference to the subjects they are applied to these are the terms latitude and longitude, which, in their natural signification of breadth and length, have been significant of the supposed figure of the world, as previously described, to and evidently cannot be applicable only referred.

In reckoning the longitudes according to the ancient system, therefore, the difference 18 West between this meridian and that of Greenwich, which is the point from which the longitudes are all reckoned in this Atlas, must be taken into consideration. This modern principle has been preferred to is taking Ferro as a starting point, because, in the comparison with modern geography, the advantage all on the side of the modern system. And the ancient latitudes and longitudes can be considered only little as approximations, so that they can afford but assistance in comparative geography.

The Peutingerian at Vienna. It is Table, so called on account of is its having first been made known by Conrad in the imperial library Peutinger, a native of Augsburg, in Germany, an ancient road-map, preserved drawn on parchment, and is usually considered to have been constructed about the time of the Emperor Theodosius, a. It shows the whole of the then distorted known world, but is in a singularly is manner feet.

The length would appear to have been founded on the first parallel previously It is mentioned, but the map generally can give no idea of the world as a whole. The upper part of the land will represent a portion of the European continent, with Sarmatia on the verge, including Pannonia Superior and part of Liburnia and Illyricum, between Ausancalio lat. Below the left this the Adriatic Sea represented as a narrow having the Ins. Lissa before Iadera at extremity.

Italy, side, with Rome and its port in the centre of the Map, lat. The Mediterranean the continent of Africa. Sea, like the Adriatic, a narrow line of water, separates the portion of Italy from The coast of this is represented in a singularly distorted manner, for the whole length of the section to is occupied with the coast between Utica, a short distance to the lat. The interior comprises the bottom of the Map is the circumscribing range of is mountains dividing the habitable world from the surrounding ocean.

The roads which this Tabula was specially designed to shew are exhibited, and on them marked the distances between one station and another in to Bobella, along the Roman is miles, Mille Passus, or M.

The principal of these much may be the considered as the Antonine Itinerary, which gives us a very large number of distances, as computed or measured between various places. The Peripli, or Narratives of Sea Voyages, also afford much matter for the deterof mination of ancient localities. Such is the Voyage Hanno, the Carthaginian, along the western discussion coast of Africa, a subject which has given rise to much among modern geographers.

Those all assist of Arrian in the Euxine and Erythraean Sea, of Scylax along the coasts of Europe and Asia, in the formation of the present system of comparative geography. These works, which do not form a A.

ITALY, th rti. A is very important branch of ancient geography are the measures made use of in those times and it necessary to the proper understanding of many of the narratives that they should be noticed. Its true length The has stadium was the principal measure of distance in ancient Greece and her colonies. If we will give the chief arguments that have been used in this we deduce it from the present measurements of distances given by ancient writers, we shall ; arrive at very different results and to make these discordances in some measure coincide, it has been usually considered that there were stadia of different lengths in use in different ages and in different regions.

But it has been argued on the other side that only one measure is intended in all these cases, at least on this side of the iEgaean Sea, that is, the stadium of Attic feet. The Athens. Now this is the exact length of the foot-race in the Olympic games, the distance between the afaais and ripfia, the pillars at the extremities of the course, or the starting and the ; winning posts.

Hence the term Olympic stadium and this is also the precise length of all the stadia of Greece, which are very clearly defined to have consisted of Greek feet, or, as shown beneath, of Roman feet.

The Roman little less milliare, or mille passuum, equal to 5, Roman feet, we are told by Plutarch, is was a than 8 Greek stadia. One of the arguments upon which a variety of stadia are made This is to rest is the circumference of the globe as estimated by different philosophers. They never had any better means of ascertaining the proportion of the arc to the whole its than by observing the proportion between the length of the gnomon and is shadow. This computation of Eratosthenes ; remained as an authority up to at least the second century of our sera but as it is it evidently founded on data that only approximate rudely to the truth, no dependence can be placed in as a measure of length.

After that period there was a variety of measurements given to the stadium, the chief of which are those of 7 and 71 to the Roman mile. To account for the seeming anomalies which appear in considering the stadium to have been of a uniform length, as the authors give very different distances by the same measure, is to consider what were the measurements intended.

We The shall find that most of these distances were computed it indeed almost all the Greek writers used computed distances, and was only in later times that the Romans gave exact measurements. Thus the only method is ; of measuring the length of a march would be by reckoning the time as to the occupied, and this in a day's journey always over-rated. Herodotus gives stadia for voyaging by a sailing ship by day, and by night.

Generally, 1, stadia were reckoned a 24 hour's voyage. This must inevitably be a very crude calculation, and sinuosities of the coast, must depend most materially upon a variety of circumstances, the the navigator, the wind, or upon what was not at all the skill of understood, the direction and strength of the tides and currents. Therefore, under unfavourable circumstances, stadia only were performed, or even much less.

In comparing the road distances as given by various authors, distances are increased according as the country travelled over we always find that these computed is less known, and, consequently, that in length during the progress of from this circumstance it would appear that the stadium was increased time, or as the roads and distances they were applied to measure became better known and more traverse.

It is The parasang length, and is still is another measure often mentioned by Greek writers. The modern measure generally reckoned as 3 or 4 English miles, which it very nearly agrees with that given corroborated by Xenophon.

Roman Roman passus of 5 pedes actus of pedes Mille passus, or Milliare, or M. Persian parasang One point, however, demands notice, and that is, the changes which have taken place in the nature of the earth's surface during the very long period that has elapsed since the occurrences related, or the places described, were in existence. The low alluvial plain, stretching from the foot of Mount Ida to the Sea, and now quite intersected by very numerous watercourses, which, even during comparatively recent to the conviction that, during the periods, have changed their courses and character, leads us it many centuries which have passed away since was peopled by the invading host before Troy, these causes of change totally altered its character, have not been dormant, but must have probably and carried dry land, so with the hills travellers, where, perhaps, the ships of the Greeks brought their armies to the siege.

Not and even ; mountains they remain lasting testimonies to the truth of the narration. Some recently, have endeavoured to identify ancient sites with but, as modern localities in these remarkable plains we cannot refute these assertions so, by any appeal is to historical geography, we have only to consider that it may have been part, too, or that there results.

Again, the present south-east coast of England, the scene of the landing of Caesar's expeditions, left will not coincide with the narratives he has of them. It is very probable that the coast here has considerably extended outward since that period. Within the range of modern history the sea has greatly encroached, reversing the previous order, upon the eastern coast of England where large plains extended, now is it.

Pompeii, too, whose destruction 1, years ago but described by Pliny, stood on the margin of the sea, now It is a considerable distance removed from must not be understood that these mighty changes have affected ; all the physical world to an equal extent these remarks must be referred only to those less permanent features of the land, the sandy the alluvial plain, the meandering river, and the marshy delta, and not to the lasting and beach, permanent characteristics of a country.

The rugged mountains and hills remain, in to most cases, that, while comparatively unchanged since the earliest period. These remarks are here made show many most permanent land-marks remain, still many of the minor features, upon which rest, perhaps, the most important particulars of a narrative, have passed away, and cannot now be recognised.

We various shall now make a few remarks upon the series of in Maps in the order in which they are placed. They have been arranged, countries, opinion.

Maps II. The first of these maps shows the extent and monuments, as far as is known, of the ancient mistress of the world. But the present is city extends on the western side of the Tiber, the plan. Vatican Mount lying where the Circus Neronis marked on the Ancient Italy, from the profuseness of the histories and information which have reached us respecting it, is the best known of all ancient countries.

But few of its sites are involved in much uncertainty, and the number of existing monuments and remains of Roman grandeur identify almost all the towns, very many of which are still identical in situation and name with those of classic antiquity. In Map III. These could not be inserted the other maps without causing Maps VI. The plan, which has been composed from the recent surveys by the present Greek government, shows ancient sites, all the city, as far as they can be ascertained with any degree of probability.

The modern which resembles an English provincial town, occupies a portion of the plain east of the Acropolis. Until within a recent period, the ; features of the country were known only in a crude and unsatisfactory manner and we may say, with great truth, that the ancient descriptions were very far in advance of our knowledge of the country. These are not marked on the map, as being unnecessary to the general reader.

Map VIII. The Archipelago, Map IX. Map X. Although most it portions of this map are well represented, still we have a deficiency in the classical portion, as has not been yet sufficiently examined by those who are capable of deciding and systematizing the comparative geography.

Maps XI. Disco- veries of ancient art and remains are continually being made, of which we know nothing but that they civilization must have represented much comparative is and wealth. The roads, too, are given in this map of Britain.

These additional features have been inserted, because we look with greater interest on the antiquities of our own country, although of minor importance in the general history of the world at those times. The remarks that were applied to Italy may also be made respecting France.

The north-western portion, that which now forms a portion of the Low Countries, Holland, and Belgium, the face of the country, the mouths of the great rivers which drain this portion of Europe, arc much altered, as is shown also in the following map.

Map XIV. The inhabitants of this portion of the world, destined, in after years, to its perform such an important part in the history of Europe, were, by early historians, considered to be on the extreme verge of the known world.