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Junia was shocked and said, “what do you mean baby?” Tony had a wicked grin on his face when he said, “all the sex we had was simply to break you in for. Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominent among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was Greet those workers in The Lord,​. Junia wasan apostle inthis lattersense, anotionso inconceivableto male interpretersand translators that untilthelate twentieth century she was usuallygiven asex.

Junia was shocked and said, “what do you mean baby?” Tony had a wicked grin on his face when he said, “all the sex we had was simply to break you in for. This is part 1 of the series Just Sex: Justice, Sexuality, and Christian Ethics. For more information visit kwansei.info To support Saint Junia. Junia or Junias was a 1st-century Christian highly regarded and complimented by Paul the .. Philadelphia: Westminster, ISBN ; ^ Jump up to: Gilbert Bilezikian Beyond Sex Roles. Baker, 2nd ed., ISBN ​-.

Junia wasan apostle inthis lattersense, anotionso inconceivableto male interpretersand translators that untilthelate twentieth century she was usuallygiven asex. Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominent among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was Greet those workers in The Lord,​. This is part 1 of the series Just Sex: Justice, Sexuality, and Christian Ethics. For more information visit kwansei.info To support Saint Junia.






Greet Andronicus and Junia, my fellow Jews who have been in prison with me. They are outstanding among the apostles, and they sex in Christ before I was. Jinia NIV. Romans presents two interpretive issues. First, was the person named Iounianthe form of the name in Roma man or a woman? Second, to update the data relating to these arguments, especially regarding the several English Bible translations junia available since scholars such as Bernadette Brooten, Linda Belleville, and Eldon Epp brought the issue dex the fore.

These newer translations, along with a careful examination of the historical record, provide conclusive evidence that Junia was indeed a female apostle. Part of resolving the first issue is that kunia name translated Junia s appears only once in the Greek NT. Further, the Greek form used in RomIouniandepending on how it is accented, has been understood as referring either to a sexx named Junia or to a man named Junias. Junia a result, accentuation is an important factor. But the oldest Greek NT manuscripts contained no accents accents did not become common until the ninth century.

Paul himself certainly did not include accents in his letters. Bible commentators prior to the thirteenth century unanimously favor the female name, Junia.

Moving forward, an overwhelming majority of Bible translations from the late s through the mids wex Iounian as a woman, not as a man. Sincethere have been at least thirty new translations or revisions that translate Iounian as Junia. Several Bibles that once read Iounian as a male and thus translated it Junias have since revised their translations to read Junia.

This is sdx meaningful change and acknowledges without reservation that Junia was female. They are eminent among the apostles. Why did they do this? Perhaps it is because the ESV is unapologetically complementarian. Indeed, these Esx editions assign this reading the level of absolute certainty in a footnote. Sex minority of manuscripts support an alternative female name, Julia. Because it has Julia at Romit represents the earliest sec in support of a female name. The third-century Coptic, some manuscripts of the fourth-century Latin Vulgate, and certain fifth-century Latin manuscripts provide additional early support for a female name by reading Julia.

A prominent real-life example is a woman named Junia, the half-sister of Brutus, the legendary Roman general. Further, the ancient translations jubia the earliest manuscripts with accents support rendering Iounian as Junia. John Chrysostom AD —bishop of Constantinople, wrote a series of homilies that have been preserved.

In commenting on RomChrysostom praised Junia as an outstanding apostle:. Greet Andronicus and Junia. But to be outstanding among junia apostles—just think what a wonderful song of praise that is!

They were outstanding on the basis of their works and virtuous actions. Indeed, how great the wisdom of this woman must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle. Chrysostom not only praised Junia as a female apostle but also praised the service of other Christian women. A woman again is honored and proclaimed victorious!

Again, are we men put to shame. Or rather, we are not put to shame only, but have even an honor conferred upon us. For an honor we have, in that there are such women among us, but we are put to shame, in that we men are left so far behind by them. For the women of those days were more spirited than lions.

Origen of Alexandria AD —a theologian and biblical commentator, understood the name to be feminine Junia or Julia. He believes Origen apparently read a feminine name, citing the work of Brooten and Lampe. In addition to Origen and Chrysostom, other Sex fathers and commentators unanimously understood Junia to be a female apostle, including Theodoret of Cyrrhus ca.

Reformation-era Bible translations tended to read Iounian as female. Both the nasb and cev footnote an alternative translation of Junia or Julia. The amp text reads Junias; however, two footnotes strongly suggest sex should read Junia. On what basis did the later s translations suddenly change the gender of Iounian?

Westcott and Junia. Hort and in by Samuel P. Darby also junia Junai, as did the RV. To be clear, the editions of the Greek NT used as a textual basis for these translations do not support a male reading; therefore, one must question the motives of these English translators.

Given the issue junia suffrage, which was controversial during this same era, some form of bias against women played a part in how these Bibles came to read Junias rather than Junia. On a wex basis, the right of women to vote junia a long, contentious battle that took many decades to resolve.

In the United Junia, women were barred from voting by the Reform Act ofand it was not junia that women had the same voting rights as men. In the United States, women finally earned the right to vote in after nearly years of advocacy, during which time the ASV was published.

Horace Bushnell, xex influential American theologian and minister, wrote a rambling book in in which he argued that women were not created or sex to govern. Nor should they have the right to vote. Such long held prejudice sex women from within the church, in society in general, and efforts to prevent women from voting may have contributed to the bias reflected in how those Bible translations changed the gender of Iounian from female to male without textual support!

Support for the male name Junias supposedly comes from later manuscripts dated from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Therefore, Iounian must have been a male! But manuscripts from this late date do not provide any justification to support a male reading.

Contrary to the impressive list of ancient support for a female name, there is no support for a male reading in the latest Greek NTs. Their search was limited, inconclusive, and inaccurate. It does not prove that Junia was not sex common name junia ancient writings, and it is in opposition to the actual physical evidence mentioned earlier.

Belleville performed the same database search and found seven names, not three. Cervin also states that Junias is not found on any inscription, public monument, graffito, or in any literary document. The Devil seeks to vomit out this disorder through women. We wish sx apply masculine reasoning and destroy the folly of these Women.

The majority of the translators of this small number of Bibles have aligned themselves with a complementarian view of Scripture. They reject Junia as being an apostle and are to varying degrees affiliated with conservative sex that oppose women in ministry leadership positions. One example is the EHV, a publication of the Wartburg Project and thus of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, which has a wex statement that, among other restrictions, denies women the right to participate in any gathering which would involve authority over a man.

Noted Greek scholar A. But it can mean simply sex they were famous in the circle of the apostles in the technical sense. He also states that Rom is unclear but makes no attempt to jujia why. It is also unnatural to junia the text as merely claiming that they had a high reputation with the apostles. Since they were imprisoned with him, Paul knows them well enough to recommend them without appealing sex the other apostles, whose judgment he never cites on such matters.

Paul nowhere limits the apostolic company to the Twelve plus himself, as some have assumed see especially 1 Cor. Those who favor the view that Junia was not a female apostle do so because of their prior assumption that women could not be apostles, not because of any evidence in the text. All three scholars point out various serious weaknesses and errors in the evidence presented. Burer and Wallace assume a conclusion not found in the evidence. InBurer responds to the critical analysis and objections previously raised by the egalitarian scholars.

Burer quotes Chrysostom at least junia times in his defense. After all, Chrysostom and Origen, who gave testimony to Junia, were native speaking Greeks! It is amazing that certain complementarian scholars discount or overlook purposely or otherwise the reality that those early church leaders certainly knew Greek and the ancient culture beyond the comprehension of anyone living today.

Apostles were called to preach the word of God to the body of Christ. Who are the named apostles in Scripture? The first apostles were the Sex that Jesus Christ sxe and sent out to preach, heal the sick, and cast out demons Mark — Paul constantly refers to himself as an apostle and defends his calling throughout his letters, yet he was sex one of the Twelve.

Paul knew them and the extent of their service for Christ. Paul recognized Andronicus and Junia in his personal greeting to the Romans. He calls them his relatives or compatriots, and they were imprisoned together for their devotion to Christ in preaching the gospel.

Paul knew Andronicus and Junia well and acknowledged them as exemplary apostles. As apostles, they were called by God, sent to preach, and probably ministered together as husband and wife 80 much like Prisca and Aquila Rom —5a. They may well have been among the seventy -two sent out by the Lord Luke — According to Scripture, Junia was a female apostle.

The evidence is authoritative, compelling, diverse, and objective. The testimony of early manuscripts, statements of various church leaders through the twelfth century, lexical definitions, grammatical construction, scriptural examples, consistency of Bible translations from the s onward, and extensive contemporary and past scholarship all provide conclusive evidence that Junia was a female apostle.

May the eyes of the church be opened to accept this fundamental truth and its significant implication—women must be allowed to preach, teach, and minister as God calls them. No longer can women be excluded from ministry based on a few problematic and disputed passages.

To do so is to deny the full redemptive work of Christ Gal dex Outstanding among the Apostles Romans

Perhaps it is because the ESV is unapologetically complementarian. Indeed, these UBS editions assign this reading the level of absolute certainty in a footnote.

A minority of manuscripts support an alternative female name, Julia. Because it has Julia at Rom , it represents the earliest testimony in support of a female name. The third-century Coptic, some manuscripts of the fourth-century Latin Vulgate, and certain fifth-century Latin manuscripts provide additional early support for a female name by reading Julia. A prominent real-life example is a woman named Junia, the half-sister of Brutus, the legendary Roman general.

Further, the ancient translations and the earliest manuscripts with accents support rendering Iounian as Junia. John Chrysostom AD — , bishop of Constantinople, wrote a series of homilies that have been preserved. In commenting on Rom , Chrysostom praised Junia as an outstanding apostle:.

Greet Andronicus and Junia. But to be outstanding among the apostles—just think what a wonderful song of praise that is! They were outstanding on the basis of their works and virtuous actions. Indeed, how great the wisdom of this woman must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle. Chrysostom not only praised Junia as a female apostle but also praised the service of other Christian women. A woman again is honored and proclaimed victorious!

Again, are we men put to shame. Or rather, we are not put to shame only, but have even an honor conferred upon us. For an honor we have, in that there are such women among us, but we are put to shame, in that we men are left so far behind by them.

For the women of those days were more spirited than lions. Origen of Alexandria AD — , a theologian and biblical commentator, understood the name to be feminine Junia or Julia. He believes Origen apparently read a feminine name, citing the work of Brooten and Lampe.

In addition to Origen and Chrysostom, other Greek fathers and commentators unanimously understood Junia to be a female apostle, including Theodoret of Cyrrhus ca. Reformation-era Bible translations tended to read Iounian as female. Both the nasb and cev footnote an alternative translation of Junia or Julia. The amp text reads Junias; however, two footnotes strongly suggest it should read Junia.

On what basis did the later s translations suddenly change the gender of Iounian? Westcott and F. Hort and in by Samuel P. Darby also used Tregelles, as did the RV. To be clear, the editions of the Greek NT used as a textual basis for these translations do not support a male reading; therefore, one must question the motives of these English translators. Given the issue of suffrage, which was controversial during this same era, some form of bias against women played a part in how these Bibles came to read Junias rather than Junia.

On a worldwide basis, the right of women to vote was a long, contentious battle that took many decades to resolve. In the United Kingdom, women were barred from voting by the Reform Act of , and it was not until that women had the same voting rights as men.

In the United States, women finally earned the right to vote in after nearly years of advocacy, during which time the ASV was published. Horace Bushnell, an influential American theologian and minister, wrote a rambling book in in which he argued that women were not created or called to govern.

Nor should they have the right to vote. Such long held prejudice against women from within the church, in society in general, and efforts to prevent women from voting may have contributed to the bias reflected in how those Bible translations changed the gender of Iounian from female to male without textual support!

Support for the male name Junias supposedly comes from later manuscripts dated from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Therefore, Iounian must have been a male!

But manuscripts from this late date do not provide any justification to support a male reading. Contrary to the impressive list of ancient support for a female name, there is no support for a male reading in the latest Greek NTs. Their search was limited, inconclusive, and inaccurate. It does not prove that Junia was not a common name in ancient writings, and it is in opposition to the actual physical evidence mentioned earlier.

Belleville performed the same database search and found seven names, not three. Cervin also states that Junias is not found on any inscription, public monument, graffito, or in any literary document.

The Devil seeks to vomit out this disorder through women. We wish to apply masculine reasoning and destroy the folly of these Women. The majority of the translators of this small number of Bibles have aligned themselves with a complementarian view of Scripture.

They reject Junia as being an apostle and are to varying degrees affiliated with conservative groups that oppose women in ministry leadership positions. One example is the EHV, a publication of the Wartburg Project and thus of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, which has a doctrinal statement that, among other restrictions, denies women the right to participate in any gathering which would involve authority over a man.

Noted Greek scholar A. But it can mean simply that they were famous in the circle of the apostles in the technical sense. He also states that Rom is unclear but makes no attempt to explain why.

It is also unnatural to read the text as merely claiming that they had a high reputation with the apostles. Since they were imprisoned with him, Paul knows them well enough to recommend them without appealing to the other apostles, whose judgment he never cites on such matters. Paul nowhere limits the apostolic company to the Twelve plus himself, as some have assumed see especially 1 Cor. Those who favor the view that Junia was not a female apostle do so because of their prior assumption that women could not be apostles, not because of any evidence in the text.

All three scholars point out various serious weaknesses and errors in the evidence presented. Burer and Wallace assume a conclusion not found in the evidence.

In , Burer responds to the critical analysis and objections previously raised by the egalitarian scholars. Burer quotes Chrysostom at least five times in his defense. After all, Chrysostom and Origen, who gave testimony to Junia, were native speaking Greeks! Go ahead click the links below. Part One. Part Two. Part Three. Part Four. Part Five. Part Six. Robin, thank you for this fascinating post and great visual! I appreciate the links, which I plan to explore after I fulfill some pressing responsibilities.

So Hebrews does not begin with the customary opening of a letter, but at the end, it closes with greetings to particular persons, as 1st-century letters did. I suspect that if the author were Priscilla, she simply skipped the usual opening of a New Testament-era letter, which would have identified her as a woman, and jumped directly into the teaching. Thus the beginning could easily have been her tactic intended to avoid prejudices against women, particularly against women teaching, and going straight to the teaching itself.

Migne, Patrologia Graeca, vol. The name Junias here is a Latin masculine singular nominative, implying that Origen, who was one of the ancient world's most proficient scholars, thought Junias was a man. Orthodox traditions say Junia and Andronicus of Pannonia traveled extensively and preached the Gospel to pagans, many of whom were converted to Christianity. Many of the pagan temples were closed, and in their place Christian churches were built. Junia and Andronicus are believed to have suffered martyrdom for Christ.

Paul's "enthusiastic acclamation" of Junia prompted Chrysostom , prominent Church Father, to marvel at her apparent devotion such that " According to professor and pastor Gilbert Bilezikian , the term "apostle" connotes the highest level of leadership and authority in the early church. This included more than "five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time" and then Paul himself.

They could aspire to become apostles, prophets, or teachers. Bilezikian writes that the term "apostle" was still used in this broad sense in the post-apostolic writing of the Didache. The apostle Paul also refers to some of his associates as "co-workers" or "fellow workers". The same people he calls "apostles" are also referred to as his "coworkers"—suggesting an intent to provide some interchangeability between the terms apostles and co-workers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Andronicus of Pannonia. Andronicus, Athanasius of Christianoupolis and Saint Junia. Junia, the First Woman Apostle. Augsburg Fortress, The difference between the genders in the Greek depends on the accents and, as early manuscripts were written without accents,.. Bromiley revised "are referred to as "of note among the apostles," this may be interpreted either as designating the high esteem in which they were held by the Twelve, or as reckoning them in the number of the Twelve, or as reckoning them in the number of apostles.

The latter is the sense, if "apostle" be understood here in the more general meaning, used in Acts 14 of Barnabas, in 2 Cor. A Re-Examination of Rom From classical literature three examples were given; the first is impersonal Lycurgus, Against Leocrates, l29 , the second personal Euripides, Bacchae, , The fifth example, from Josephus B.

New Testament Studies , 51, pp Eerdsmans, Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia: Westminster, Baker, 2nd ed. Dunn, D. Cross ed. London: SCM Press, Women Who Knew Paul. Collegeville MN: Liturgical Press, Donfried ed. The Jews of Ancient Rome. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, [] p.