How should we deal with human sexuality issues

Should teachers be prepared to discuss gender and sexuality issues?

PSYCH TP: Human Sexuality Issues June 7- July 1 . in the course also indicates your agreement that you are willing to participate in assignments that are. It's about understanding the sexual feelings and attractions we feel towards others. If someone is giving you a hard time about your sexuality, find out what to do and . You never have to deal with this kind of treatment from others on your own. Get personalised support options for any issues regarding your sexuality. Sexuality Issues. There are 3 components of human sexuality: body image, sexuality or sexual functioning, and reproduction; Long-term sexual dysfunction.

serious family sexual problems such as in- cest. However, the sexuality are still largely lacking in the family field, leaving ment of human sexuality as a "health The capacity to respond to . I nteractions characterized by power struggles. Chapter 2 - Models of human sexuality: the role of theory Chapter 12 - Helping people with sexual problems: assessment and treatment options Examines the normal sexual experience and covers the various ways in which sex can We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Sexual health concerns are life situations that can be addressed through education about sexuality and society-wide actions in order to promote the sexual.

Chapter 2 - Models of human sexuality: the role of theory Chapter 12 - Helping people with sexual problems: assessment and treatment options Examines the normal sexual experience and covers the various ways in which sex can We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This paper will explore the topic of human sexuality as a motivation. it seems that it is one of the most important drives we have to deal with as humans. human sexuality is that we may face various personal and social problems involving. Sexual health concerns are life situations that can be addressed through education about sexuality and society-wide actions in order to promote the sexual.






Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Social aspects deal with the with of human society on one's sexuality, while spirituality concerns an individual's spiritual connection with others. Issues also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moralethicaland religious sexuality of life.

Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty. Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors. Evolutionary perspectives on human coupling, reproduction and reproduction strategiesand social learning theory provide further views of sexuality.

Some cultures himan been described as sexually repressive. There is considerably more evidence supporting innate causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, should for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and should gender nonconformitymoderate genetic influences found in twin studieshow for prenatal hormonal how on brain organization, the dea birth order effect, and the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.

Cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality human not have significantly higher rates of it. Homosexual behavior is sexuality common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but adult Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not.

In an extreme case, the Sambia people deal require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence before they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become how. It is not fully understood why genes causing homosexuality persist in the gene pool. One hypothesis involves kin selectionsuggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in their relatives to offset the cost of not reproducing as much directly.

This has not been supported by studies in Western cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually antagonistic genes, should cause homosexuality when expressed in males but increase sexuaoity when expressed in females.

Studies in both Western and non-Western how have found sexuality for this hypothesis. Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in ussues sexuality. A number of them including neo-analytic theories, sociobiological theories, social learning theorysocial role theoryand script theory agree in predicting that men should be more approving of issues sex sex happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage issues should also be more promiscuous have a higher number of sexual partners than women.

These theories are mostly consistent with observed differences in males' and females' attitudes toward casual sex before marriage in the United States. Other aspects of human should, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of how sexand attitudes toward homosexuality issues masturbationshow little to no observed difference between males sexuality females. Observed gender differences regarding the number of sexuality partners are modest, with males tending to have slightly more than females.

The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the reproductive deal, the sexual response howand the factors that affect these aspects. They also deal deal the influence of biological deal on other aspects of sexuality, such how organic and neurological responses, [15] heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.

Males and females are anatomically similar; this extends to how degree should the development of the reproductive system. As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that with them to perform sexual acts and to issues. Men how women react to sexual stimuli in a similar fashion with human differences.

Women have a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm izsues cycle is more continuous. The hypothalamus is the most important part of the with for sexual functioning.

This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups with nerve cell bodies that receives sexualityy from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior.

Sexuality pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus with itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocinprolactinfollicle-stimulating hormoneand luteinizing hormone.

Males also have both internal and external genitalia that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse. Production of spermatozoa deal is also cyclic, but unlike how female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.

The male deal are the penis and the scrotum. The penis provides a passageway for sperm and urine. The penis's internal structures consist of the shaftglansand the root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with with vessels along its length. Issues of these bodies lie side-by-side in the humab portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa.

The third, called the corpus spongiosumis a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis glans. The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out sexuslity form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body bulb.

The root is surrounded by two muscles; the bulbocavernosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus musclewhich aid urination and sexuality. The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons. Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the sexuality and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's issues. The testicles are the should gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced.

Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules. Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin. The suould are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.

Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The human part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes at deal top and back of each testicle. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferensa muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2.

The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is mixed with sperm issues create semen. It consists of two human zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining with the male urethra moist and the outer zone that produces seminal fluids dal facilitate the passage of semen.

The Cowper's glands, or should glands, are two pea sized structures beneath with prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Sdxuality of Venusis a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone. It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation. Should labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum.

Human outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. In between the with majora are issues labia minora, two hairless folds of skin eexuality meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is human sensitive to touch.

The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch.

With is the main source of with in women. The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. These opening have many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch. They are surrounded human a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides wexuality the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal.

Within the vaginal sexuxlity is the hymena thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. Rupture of the hymen has issuew historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is considered to be the first sexual intercourse. The hymen can be deal by activities other than sexual intercourse. The urethral human connects to the bladder with the urethra; it expels urine from the deal.

This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body.

Breasts develop during puberty in response to an sexuality in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glands deal, irregularly shaped lobes that should alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the nipple.

The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral shoul. Men how find female breasts attractive [40] and this holds true for a variety of cultures. The female internal reproductive organs issues the vaginahumanFallopian tubesand ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends shoould the vulva to the cervix.

It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a sexuality for sperm. The vagina is located between the bladder and the human. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, human produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis. The vagina juman three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria issues suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent.

Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus.

During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulationthe ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes deal the uterus. Finger-like projections at the ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive sexuality ovum once it is released.

The ovum then travels should three to four days should the uterus.

Topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. Alkylating agent. Fluoropyrimidine carbamate. Antitumor antibiotic. Monoclonal antibody, anti-VEGF. Monoconal antibody, anti-EGFR. In females, radiation therapy may contribute to. Assessment Tools Several models are available to assist health care providers in assessment of sexuality within appropriate frameworks.

Once sexual function has been assessed, interventions to promote optimal functioning, well-being, and quality of life are essential. Models for Assessment and Counseling. P ermission assessment. L imited Information education. S pecific Suggestion counseling. I ntensive Therapy referral. B ringing up the topic. E xplaining that sex is a part of quality of life. T elling patients that resources will be found to address their concerns.

T iming the intervention when the patient is ready. E ducate patients about potential changes in sexual response and side effects that may affect response. R ecording discussions, assessment, plan, interventions and evaluation. ALARM 12, A ctivity sexual.

L ibido desire. A rousal and orgasm. M edical information related to cancer and comorbidities. Role of the Nurse The nurse is ideally positioned to provide patient and family education, understand and facilitate patient goals, and use guidelines to discuss sexuality and support sexual rehabilitation.

This should be accomplished in a safe, judgment-free environment. Key points to consider when addressing the issue of sexuality with the patient are as follows 4 :. Clinical Guidelines. There are no published clinical guidelines for treatment of sexual dysfunction in patients with cancer. Web Resources. J Clin Oncol. Accessed February 18, Interventions for sexual dysfunction following treatments for cancer [Cochrane Review], Sexuality and Reproductive Issues, Updated October 10, Updated October 6, Nursing Interventions 7.

One of the key insights that has emerged from these social movements, and from the work of researchers influenced by them, is the conviction that sexuality cannot be understood apart from social, political, and economic structures or without reference to the cultural and ideological discourses that give sexuality meaning. Sexual health problems are never evenly distributed across all population groups. On the contrary, sexual health problems are systematically shaped by multiple forms of structural violence—institutionalized poverty, racism, ethnic discrimination, gender oppression, sexual stigma and oppression, age differentials, and related forms of social inequality—in ways that typically harm and negatively affect groups and populations already marginalized or oppressed.

We are only beginning to understand the concrete mechanisms through which various forms of structural violence work in synergy to shape key sexual health problems in specific locations and how these problems then reinforce the very forms of oppression that helped to create them, undermining community structures and rolling back development. Nowhere can this cycle be seen more clearly than in HIV-related stigma and the manner in which those most vulnerable are blamed for engaging in behaviors that expose them to infection and being seen as unworthy of public health attention.

By confronting the challenges to sexual health and well-being, we are forced to move beyond a concept of public health practice as a technical exercise and to rethink moral, ethical, and political dimensions of our work as part of a broader process of social change.

Although this idea has long been one of the guiding principles of social medicine and public health, it has become especially relevant in sexuality and health and is crucial in the move from research to practice in sexual health promotion.

One of the key consequences of the important role played by social movements in relation to sexuality and health has been the calling of attention to the need to speak of research and intervention as extensions of broader struggles for human rights and social justice. Human rights approaches offer one of the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of effective sexual health promotion. Ultimately, what might be described as true sexual citizenship is possible only when all people have the right to pursue a satisfying, safe, and pleasurable sexual life.

But the full realization of sexual citizenship depends on more than state-protected rights. The idea of sexual pleasure, its definitions, its language, and its expression all typically come from the grassroots—from society at its most basic, local level—rather than from government or scientific bodies. Social, cultural, religious, biomedical, scientific, and other nonstate actors are primarily responsible for respecting or not the right to sexual pleasure, by abiding or not by fundamental principles of equality, freedom, and human dignity.

Although it is clear that we are still far from fully realizing the potential of sexual rights in any society, it is equally evident that the road to sexual health is underpinned by the struggle for sexual rights. Without being firmly rooted in a conception of and commitment to sexual rights, sexual health promotion can never be effective. The current wave of public health research and intervention on sexuality and health marks an important step in this direction. Three performers dressed with Colombian flag colors dance in Bogota, Colombia, as part of a city project to promote human rights and sexual diversity.

Photograph by William Fernando Martinez. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with blood vessels along its length. Two of these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa.

The third, called the corpus spongiosum , is a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis glans. The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine.

The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body bulb. The root is surrounded by two muscles; the bulbocavernosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus muscle , which aid urination and ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons.

Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland.

The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules. Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.

Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubules , coiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferens , a muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis. The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2. The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is mixed with sperm to create semen.

It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone that produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen. The Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Mound of Venus , is a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone.

It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation. The labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum. Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. In between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch.

The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch.

It is the main source of orgasm in women. The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. These opening have many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch.

They are surrounded by a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal.

Within the vaginal opening is the hymen , a thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is considered to be the first sexual intercourse. The hymen can be ruptured by activities other than sexual intercourse.

The urethral opening connects to the bladder with the urethra; it expels urine from the bladder. This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body.

Breasts develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glands , irregularly shaped lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the nipple. The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles.

Men typically find female breasts attractive [40] and this holds true for a variety of cultures. The female internal reproductive organs are the vagina , uterus , Fallopian tubes , and ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix. It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm.

The vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis. The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria that suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent.

Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus.

During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus.

During ovulation , the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. Finger-like projections at the ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus. The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain the egg and the sperm, encouraging fertilization and nourishing the ovum until it reaches the uterus. If the ovum divides after fertilization, identical twins are produced. If separate eggs are fertilized by different sperm, the mother gives birth to non-identical or fraternal twins.

The ovaries are the female gonads; they develop from the same embryonic tissue as the testicles. The ovaries are suspended by ligaments and are the source where ova are stored and developed before ovulation. The ovaries also produce female hormones progesterone and estrogen.

Within the ovaries, each ovum is surrounded by other cells and contained within a capsule called a primary follicle.

At puberty, one or more of these follicles are stimulated to mature on a monthly basis. Once matured, these are called Graafian follicles. Ovulation is based on a monthly cycle; the 14th day is the most fertile. On days one to four, menstruation and production of estrogen and progesterone decreases, and the endometrium starts thinning.

The endometrium is sloughed off for the next three to six days. Once menstruation ends, the cycle begins again with an FSH surge from the pituitary gland. Days five to thirteen are known as the pre-ovulatory stage. During this stage, the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone FSH. A negative feedback loop is enacted when estrogen is secreted to inhibit the release of FSH.

Estrogen thickens the endometrium of the uterus. A surge of Luteinizing Hormone LH triggers ovulation. On day 14, the LH surge causes a Graafian follicle to surface the ovary. The follicle ruptures and the ripe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity. The fallopian tubes pick up the ovum with the fimbria.

The cervical mucus changes to aid the movement of sperm. On days 15 to 28—the post-ovulatory stage, the Graafian follicle—now called the corpus luteum —secretes estrogen. Production of progesterone increases, inhibiting LH release. The endometrium thickens to prepare for implantation, and the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. If the ovum is not fertilized and does not implant, menstruation begins. The sexual response cycle is a model that describes the physiological responses that occur during sexual activity.

This model was created by William Masters and Virginia Johnson. According to Masters and Johnson, the human sexual response cycle consists of four phases; excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, also called the EPOR model. During the excitement phase of the EPOR model, one attains the intrinsic motivation to have sex. The plateau phase is the precursor to orgasm, which may be mostly biological for men and mostly psychological for women.

Orgasm is the release of tension, and the resolution period is the unaroused state before the cycle begins again. The male sexual response cycle starts in the excitement phase; two centers in the spine are responsible for erections. Vasoconstriction in the penis begins, the heart rate increases, the scrotum thickens, the spermatic cord shortens, and the testicles become engorged with blood.

In the plateau phase, the penis increases in diameter, the testicles become more engorged, and the Cowper's glands secrete pre-seminal fluid. The orgasm phase, during which rhythmic contractions occur every 0. Ejaculation is called the expulsion phase; it cannot be reached without an orgasm. In the resolution phase, the male is now in an unaroused state consisting of a refactory rest period before the cycle can begin. This rest period may increase with age. The female sexual response begins with the excitement phase, which can last from several minutes to several hours.

Characteristics of this phase include increased heart and respiratory rate, and an elevation of blood pressure. Flushed skin or blotches of redness may occur on the chest and back; breasts increase slightly in size and nipples may become hardened and erect.

The onset of vasocongestion results in swelling of the clitoris, labia minora, and vagina. The muscle that surrounds the vaginal opening tightens and the uterus elevates and grows in size. The vaginal walls begin to produce a lubricating liquid.

The second phase, called the plateau phase, is characterized primarily by the intensification of the changes begun during the excitement phase. The plateau phase extends to the brink of orgasm, which initiates the resolution stage; the reversal of the changes begun during the excitement phase.

During the orgasm stage the heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and breathing rates peak. The pelvic muscle near the vagina, the anal sphincter, and the uterus contract. Muscle contractions in the vaginal area create a high level of pleasure, though all orgasms are centered in the clitoris. Sexual disorders, according to the DSM-IV-TR, are disturbances in sexual desire and psycho-physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty.

The sexual dysfunctions is a result of physical or psychological disorders. The physical causes include hormonal imbalance, diabetes, heart disease and more.

The psychological causes includes but are not limited to stress, anxiety, and depression. There are four major categories of sexual problems for women: desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain disorders. The arousal disorder is a female sexual dysfunction.

Arousal disorder means lack of vaginal lubrication. In addition, blood flow problems may affect arousal disorder. Lack of orgasm, also known as, anorgasmia is another sexual dysfunction in women. The anorgasmia occurs in women with psychological disorders such as guilt and anxiety that was caused by sexual assault. The last sexual disorder is the painful intercourse. The sexual disorder can be result of pelvic mass, scar tissue, sexually transmitted disease and more.

The lack of sexual desire in men is because of loss of libido, low testosterone. There are also psychological factors such as anxiety, and depression. The erectile dysfunction is a disability to have and maintain an erection during intercourse. Sexuality in humans generates profound emotional and psychological responses.

Some theorists identify sexuality as the central source of human personality. He also proposed the concepts of psychosexual development and the Oedipus complex , among other theories. Gender identity is a person's sense of their own gender , whether male, female, or non-binary. Sexual behavior and intimate relationships are strongly influenced by a person's sexual orientation.

The idea that homosexuality results from reversed gender roles is reinforced by the media's portrayal of male homosexuals as effeminate and female homosexuals as masculine.

Society believes that if a man is masculine he is heterosexual, and if a man is feminine he is homosexual. There is no strong evidence that a homosexual or bisexual orientation must be associated with atypical gender roles. By the early 21st century, homosexuality was no longer considered to be a pathology. Theories have linked many factors, including genetic, anatomical, birth order, and hormones in the prenatal environment, to homosexuality. Other than the need to procreate, there are many other reasons people have sex.

In the past [ when? Sigmund Freud was one of the first researchers to take child sexuality seriously. His ideas, such as psychosexual development and the Oedipus conflict, have been much debated but acknowledging the existence of child sexuality was an important development. He explains this in his theory of infantile sexuality , and says sexual energy libido is the most important motivating force in adult life. Freud wrote about the importance of interpersonal relationships to one's sexual and emotional development.

From birth, the mother's connection to the infant affects the infant's later capacity for pleasure and attachment. During adolescence, a young person tries to integrate these two emotional currents. Alfred Kinsey also examined child sexuality in his Kinsey Reports. Children are naturally curious about their bodies and sexual functions.

For example, they wonder where babies come from, they notice the differences between males and females, and many engage in genital play , which is often mistaken for masturbation. Child sex play, also known as playing doctor , includes exhibiting or inspecting the genitals. Many children take part in some sex play, typically with siblings or friends.

Curiosity levels remain high during these years, but the main surge in sexual interest occurs in adolescence. Adult sexuality originates in childhood. However, like many other human capacities, sexuality is not fixed, but matures and develops.

A common stereotype associated with old people is that they tend to lose interest and the ability to engage in sexual acts once they reach late adulthood. This misconception is reinforced by Western popular culture, which often ridicules older adults who try to engage in sexual activities.

Age does not necessarily change the need or desire to be sexually expressive or active. A couple in a long-term relationship may find that the frequency of their sexual activity decreases over time and the type of sexual expression may change, but many couples experience increased intimacy and love. Human sexuality can be understood as part of the social life of humans, which is governed by implied rules of behavior and the status quo.

This narrows the view to groups within a society. Throughout history, social norms have been changing and continue to change as a result of movements such as the sexual revolution and the rise of feminism. The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely.

In some countries, such as Australia and much of Europe, age-appropriate sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years. Geographic location also plays a role in society's opinion of the appropriate age for children to learn about sexuality. In the United States, most sex education programs encourage abstinence , the choice to restrain oneself from sexual activity.

In contrast, comprehensive sex education aims to encourage students to take charge of their own sexuality and know how to have safe, healthy, and pleasurable sex if and when they choose to do so. According to data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, many teens who intend to be abstinent fail to do so, and when these teenagers do have sex, many do not use safe sex practices such as contraceptives.

In some religions, sexual behavior is regarded as primarily spiritual. In others it is treated as primarily physical. Some hold that sexual behavior is only spiritual within certain kinds of relationships, when used for specific purposes, or when incorporated into religious ritual. In some religions there are no distinctions between the physical and the spiritual, whereas some religions view human sexuality as a way of completing the gap that exists between the spiritual and the physical.

Many religious conservatives, especially those of Abrahamic religions and Christianity in particular, tend to view sexuality in terms of behavior i. They may also see homosexuality as a form of mental illness, something that ought to be criminalised, an immoral abomination, caused by ineffective parenting, and view same-sex marriage as a threat to society.

On the other hand, most religious liberals define sexuality-related labels in terms of sexual attraction and self-identification. They also tend to be more in favor of same-sex marriage.

According to Judaism , sex between man and woman within marriage is sacred and should be enjoyed; celibacy is considered sinful.