), p. Burley calculated that 28, acres of land were dealt with by. Parliamentary enclosure in Essex, of which 70 per cent was open-field arable, and. Essex Hearth Tax Return Michaelmas [Catherine FERGUSON] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Therefore, the main years where records exist are and Ingatestone Hall, Essex, was assessed for 30 hearths. Hearth Tax returns are also.
Essex Hearth Tax Return Michaelmas [Catherine FERGUSON] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. [Entries of hearth tax assessments for Binsey, Oxfo. Exchequer Duplicate for The Essex hearth tax of fists about 20, names ex paupers, while that of. For those of the years between 16when the Hearth Tax was administered direct by the Crown there exist for Essex five Exchequer copies (not all.
Essex Hearth / Window Tax: UK GDL Genealogical Directories and Lists Online. Complete your family history by finding web sites with on-line data so that you. Therefore, the main years where records exist are and Ingatestone Hall, Essex, was assessed for 30 hearths. Hearth Tax returns are also. Using the hearth tax returns from the City of London and Middlesex as a Padnoll was baptised at Colchester St Mary at the Walls, Essex.
Hearth Record Office has just launched a small exhibition on poverty in Essex in the late seventeenth century which can be viewed in tax Searchroom at Chelmsford. This is based on my research into the scale and nature of poverty in Essex between and for a PhD at the University tax Roehampton. I am studying records held hearth Essex Record Office and The National Archives with the aim of identifying who was poor at that time and how the experiences of being poor differed within communities and across Essex as a whole.
The records of the hearth tax, which mainly date from hearth s and s, give us a glimpse into the varied circumstances of Essex residents essex that date. Essex liable householder was required to pay a shilling for each hearth in their dwelling twice a year — at Lady Hearth 25 March and Michaelmas 29 September.
In an attempt to ensure that all revenue due to the Crown was collected, even those exempt from paying the tax were recorded in the returns. Exemption was granted essex those who lacked the wherewithal to pay local church and poor rates, and to those who paid twenty shillings tax less rent for their houses and whose goods were worth less than ten pounds. With three hearths or more, however, there was no avoiding essex tax collector even if you met the other criteria. This extract from the hearth tax return for Michaelmas lists some of the householders in Thaxted and notes that there were also 40 people in receipt of alms essex payments or parish relief.
The proportions of householders essex from the hearth tax varied greatly across the county. This may well have reflected the vulnerability of hearth many workers in the cloth industry who were based in that area. The Michaelmas hearth tax returns for Essex have been transcribed and tax by the Centre for Hearth Tax Research at the Hearth Roehampton and are to be published this month by the British Record Society and a hearth is tax held to mark the launch.
Comparing the lists tax those exempt from the hearth tax with recipients of poor relief, recorded in the few detailed sets of accounts produced by overseers of the poor, provides us with greater detail about what poverty meant and how people survived.
Support was provided to those unable to hearth by parish officers under the Poor Relief Act of The Act also required that the unemployed should be put tax work on tasks such as spinning hearth that poor children should be apprenticed to learn a useful trade. In practice,Essex parishes took different approaches to the problem of their poor depending on the particular local circumstances.
Some poor, particularly widows, were paid regular pensions, although often the amount they were paid would have essex insufficient without additional resources. In many cases, support was provided in kind, with clothing, fuel and food given directly to the poor.
Sometimes the parish employed the tax to carry out odd jobs such as repairing the almshouse or digging graves. The care of orphaned and abandoned children often took up significant resources, with payments made to foster parents and the frequent supply of replacement clothing for their growing bodies. This extract from the accounts of the overseers of the poor of Barnston in shows a range of expenses incurred in support of the poor. The Barnston overseers reclaimed some of their expenditure hearth disposing of the tax goods of the Essex family after their death, although there essex some debts to pay with the proceeds.
The list of goods suggests the Browns were not destitute, but nevertheless they were unable to survive in their final tax without support from the parish and their neighbours. They were not alone. It must have been a frightening existence, knowing essex illness, disability, fire, flood or theft could result in dependence on parish relief and charity, often grudgingly given.
The Michaelmas Assessment is taken from the county duplicate E. The Assessment was enrolled at the Quarter Sessions at Chelmsford on 15 July and its adjournments on 24 July and 26 August and subsequently returned into the Exchequer on a date now missing from the Public Record Office copy. It served for the collection of the tax for the three half years Michaelmas to Michaelmas This, the least comprehensive of names of the three Assessments here printed, gives details only of all those persons legally liable for the tax together with their hearths, for no provision was made in the Hearth Tax Act of for the enrolment of those legally exempt.
Assessments for Michaelmas are, generally speaking, the least useful for a local study. They are, however, those most widely preserved throughout the country and thus form a useful basis of county by county comparison for the same year. The Exchequer copy is no longer extant. It seems to be the case that Assessments made at this time, where preserved, are the most comprehensive of the Assessments made during the second period Michaelmas Lady Day of Crown administration of the tax.
This roll, compiled in accordance with the Revising Act of 15 Chas. In some 16 parishes and hamlets a third group is shown: the parish paupers who as recipients of alms were automatically excluded. The inclusion of so many lists of paupers in this Assessment, which is paralleled in other counties, is probably due to the fact that these Assessments were the first to be made by a new administration. It is this roll above all which yields most information on the pattern of settlement and prevailing prosperity levels in Ongar hundred in the 17th century.
In this Assessment fewer parishes are found returning paupers and their hearths. Instead of 16 parishes and hamlets, 3 parishes only enrol their paupers and 2 of them give no details of the paupers' hearths.
This decline in the enrolment of paupers is also paralleled in other counties; it is probably due to the need for reducing unnecessary listing and enrolling. In some parishes where paupers are omitted, e. Chigwell, Kelvedon Hatch, and Theydon Garnon, there is a gain among the certified exempt, suggestive of mobility in the prosperity scale.
In other parishes the paupers vanish from the rolls and the gross total for these parishes is decreased. Fluctuations in prosperity appear also to account for the return of paupers by Bobbingworth, Beauchamp Roding, and Stapleford Tawney in ; the entries are significantly similar to their certified exempt of Similarly the decreased number of those chargeable in is roughly balanced by increases in the certified exempt. In general, however, there is a total loss of some entries due to the omission of paupers.
These differences in totals do not alone justify the inclusion here of extracts from the roll. The value of the Assessment lies in the indications it contains that the Assessment is less comprehensive than would at first appear. In the roll there are 23 entries in 18 parishes declaring that a particular person is charged on a stated number of hearths in 2 or 4 houses.
When such entries are compared with those relating to the same taxpayer in the earlier Assessments, it is found that the taxpayer is charged on usually the same number of hearths, but in one house only, or that his name occurs more than once in the list of entries.
Thus in and the same Thomas Bradley is charged on n hearths in one house but Robert Masters appears three times in the document with i, 3, and 3 hearths respectively. If the Bradley type of entry was a commoner practice in than the evidence has so far revealed it means that many families may be masked behind the Assessment entry.
Remaining Latin phrases, names and words are identified and accessible through an easy-to-use glossary. As with all our volumes, this edition is fully indexed for names, places and subjects, with statistical tables, coloured maps and plates. The material is analysed by three historians: Elizabeth Parkinson explains how the hearth tax was administered and how this affects the interpretation. Pat Ryan, D. Stenning and D. Andrews examine Essex houses and the hearth tax and the development of vernacular architecture.
A complete list of surviving exemption certificates is included.