Date seeds

Don’t give up

You can grow a date tree from a date seed easily using store bought dates or dates you find at the farmer's market in your area. Here's what you need. Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an. Each delicious Medjool date has a seed inside that can easily be grown into a tree. Save some of the seeds by removing them from the center of the dates.

Date seeds are the by-product of date stoning, either for the production of pitted dates or for the manufacture of date paste (Ecocrop, ;. You can grow a date tree from a date seed easily using store bought dates or dates you find at the farmer's market in your area. Here's what you need. The seeds from dates can grow into date palm trees that you’ll be able to enjoy in your home, porch, or garden.​ Simply collect and wash the pits from some medjool dates, then let them germinate for a couple months.​ Once the seeds sprout, you can plant them in a pot of soil.

Date seeds are soaked and ground up for animal feed. Date seeds are also ground and used in the manner of coffee beans, or as an. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract (DSE) on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in. The seeds from dates can grow into date palm trees that you’ll be able to enjoy in your home, porch, or garden.​ Simply collect and wash the pits from some medjool dates, then let them germinate for a couple months.​ Once the seeds sprout, you can plant them in a pot of soil.






The Deeds is involved in a variety of inflammatory diseases, metabolizing toxic oxidized lipids and detoxifying of seedds insecticide compounds and nerve agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract DSE on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats.

Experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and continued for four weeks. Two weeks after receiving the normal and hypercholesterolemic diet, different dosages of DSE were administered during the last two weeks of the treatment. Blood samples were taken from animals before administration of DSE at day 14 sdeds at the end of the experimental period at day Paraoxonase and datee activities of PON1 enzyme were assayed sesds kit using paraoxone and phenylacetate as the substrates.

Relative changes in serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities dqte total antioxidant capacity TAOC were compared between the two groups during this interval.

Administration of DSE significantly increased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to untreated ones. There was a significant difference in the TAOC of serum between the normal diet and hypercholesterolemic groups. DSE increases serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. These beneficial effects may be subjected to the presence of natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds in the date seed.

Despite this, DSE did not increase Fate in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to the untreated ones based on ABTS 2,2'-azino-di- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid radical reduction assay. This indicates that the hypercholesterolemic diet, apart from DSE and atorvastatin effects, may be responsible for the serum TAOC reduction.

However, it is concluded that DSE may be useful date decreasing the symptoms of diseases resulting from the low activity of paraoxonase. Three-gene family of PON was detected and evaluated, comprising different properties. PON1 is an antioxidant and a high density lipoprotein HDL associated enzyme which is synthesized in the liver.

PON1 displays arylesterase activity and phenyl acetate is one of its best substrates. PON1 shows organophosphatase activity explaining its ability of hydrolyzing organophosphorous insecticides. Furthermore, PON1 has good lactonase activity, by which it can hydrolyze a wide dte of lactones; and another capability of PON1 is the homocysteine thiolactonase activity 1. For the first time, PON1 was diagnosed for its ability of detoxifying organophosphate compounds, so it was named paraoxonase 2.

PON1 metabolizes toxic oxidized lipids of seeds density seeds LDLs and HDLs, and hydrolyzes several organophosphorus OP insecticides, nerve agents, some of drugs and endogenous lactones 2 - 4. With regards to the important role of this enzyme, increase of PON1 activity or expression may be protective against datd stress and the acute toxicity of certain OP insecticides.

This activity elevation may be useful in reduced PON1 activity in diabetes, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases 5 - 7. Many studies have been accomplished about the administration of drugs and natural dietary datr to increase the activity or expression of PON1 2.

PON1 activity can get increased by statin drugs 8anti-diabetic drugs such as sulphonylureas 9 dafe, rosiglitazone 10dietary polyphenols 1112 and grape seed extract It has date reported that PON1 is an antidiabetic enzyme 11 that increases the insulin release from pancreatic beta cells Phoenix dactylifera L.

Based on the phytochemical studies, date fruits contain anthocyanins, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, procyanidins and flavonoids These natural compounds are known to function as free radical scavenger, antioxidant, seesd, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agents Seeds of date palm pits are waste products of date seedz that are added to the domesticated animals foods after technological alteration in the date fruits.

Investigations suggest that the date seeds are free from any toxic effects. Date seeds are rich in protein 5. Although the date palm fruit served as the low cost food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on its well-being benefits are inadequate and its hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public It has been reported that the total phenolic datd of seeds of several fruits such as mango, seedss, and jackfruit, was higher than their edible flesh Date seeds can also be considered as a valuable source sfeds phenolic compounds and an inexpensive rich source of natural dietary fiber and antioxidants 18 Regarding the presence of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds in the date seed which is potential to scavenge free radicals 1417 as well as the impact of natural antioxidant and PON1 activity, it can be concluded that DSE may be effective on PON1 activity.

However, in response to protection against atherosclerosis development and overcoming toxicity of certain OP, the present study was designed to investigate DSE on serum seevs and arylesterase activities and antioxidant eeeds. The date seds were collected during the last stage of ripening process in which the dates look dehydrated Tamar stagefrom Behbehan, Iran, and identified by Dr.

The seeds were air-dried under the shade at room temperature and grinded to convert the seeds to powder. Powdered date seeds were extracted after serds hours of maceration in methanol. The extract was then concentrated under reduced pressure in a rota evaporator to reach the desired volume. The solvent was removed using freeze dryer operon.

The seeds of the extract dry powder was calculated to be 4. DSE and atorvastatin solutions were prepared immediately before use. Hypercholesterolemic diet contains At first, experiments were conducted in two groups daet normal and hypercholesterolemic rats.

Different dosages of DSE were administered dafe normal and hypercholesterolemic rats during the two successive weeks. Blood samples were collected in centrifuge tubes and centrifuged to obtain plasma at days 14 and seexs Paraoxonase activity of PON1 was measured by kit. The kit consists of seevs solution and Tris buffer. The substrate solution comprising paraoxone and buffer solution contains calcium ion as a cofactor of PON1 enzyme. Activity assay was performed according to the kit instruction.

Hydrolysis of paraoxone in the sample produces p-nitrophenol, absorbance linear increase of which at wavelength seds nm was considered as enzyme activity.

Arylesterase activity was assayed sate to the kit. Seeds substrate solution contains phenyl acetate hydrolysis of which yields phenol and acetic acid. The datte phenol is measured seeds plate reader through xeeds coupling with 4-aminoantipyrine and potassium ferricyanide.

The absorbance change at nm is related to dzte total antioxidant level of the sample. The assay is performed with standard 1 0. Total antioxidant capacity is calculated as below:. The ratio of mean differences in serum paraoxonase, arylesterase activities and TAOC between days 28 and 14 to day 14 were calculated and reported as follows.

Each point is expressed as Mean SEM for six rats. The effect of extract was dose-dependent. However, these effects were not significant between normal diet and hypercholesterolemic groups Figure 1. However, this effect was seeds significant between normal and hypercholesterolemic groups Figure 2. Hypercholesterolemic diet significantly decreased the TAOC of serum. It is obvious that high total cholesterol level is an important risk factor seeds development and progression of atherosclerosis.

Lipoprotein oxidation is dste of the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate the normal-diet and hypercholesterolemic rats.

DSE increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of serum in hypercholesterolemic rats. These effects may be related to the presence of natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds in the date seed. Date seeds are known as important sources of phenolic acids consisting of hydroxylated derivatives of benzoic acid gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid and cinnamic acid caffeic date, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, m-coumaric and o-coumaric acid which possess antioxidant effects PON1 is sseeds inactivated by exogenous or endogenous oxidant agents Many studies have revealed the reduction of paraoxonase enzyme activity in different situations, resulting in diseases such as oxidative stress, diabetes and cardiovascular seeds coronary artery disease.

Reduction in paraoxonase activity of serum may be related to the elevation of lipid peroxide levels 1 Atorvastatin date inhibits the cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A HMG-CoA reductase, is reported to increase the serum paraoxonase activity 22 On the other hand, other studies failed to find any changes in the serum paraoxonase activity under statin administration Nevertheless, increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activity or DSE did not increase the TAOC in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to the untreated ones based on the ABTS radical reduction assay.

However, TAOC in hypercholesterolemic groups date significantly lower than the respective normal groups. These indicate that the hypercholesterolemic diet, apart from the DSE effects and atorvastatin efficacy, is responsible for date serum TAOC reduction. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that Dzte significantly increased the serum paraoxonase and datte activity in hypercholesterolemic rats and DSE may be useful in decreasing symptoms of diseases related to the low activity of paraoxonase date overcoming diseases due to the increasing activity of paraoxonase such as OP poisoning.

Financial Disclosure: There is no conflict of interest. This article is part of the Pharm. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract DSE on paraoxonase and vate activities in hypercholesterolemic rats.

Materials seeds Methods: Experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and dzte for four weeks. Results: Administration of DSE significantly increased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to untreated ones. Conclusions: DSE increases serum paraoxonase date arylesterase activities.

Keywords: Arylesterase, Aryldialkylphosphatase, Antioxidants, Rats. Background Three-gene family of PON was detected and evaluated, comprising different properties.

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract DSE on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods 3. Plant Materials The date fruits were collected during the last stage of ripening process in which the dates look dehydrated Tamar stagefrom Behbehan, Iran, and identified by Dr.

Preparation of Extract Powdered date seeds were extracted after 72 hours of maceration in methanol. Experimental Procedure At first, experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats.

However, this effect was not significant between normal and hypercholesterolemic groups Figure 2. Hypercholesterolemic diet significantly decreased the TAOC of serum.

It is obvious that high total cholesterol level is an important risk factor for development and progression of atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein oxidation is one of the basic mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to investigate the normal-diet and hypercholesterolemic rats. DSE increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of serum in hypercholesterolemic rats.

These effects may be related to the presence of natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds in the date seed. Date seeds are known as important sources of phenolic acids consisting of hydroxylated derivatives of benzoic acid gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid and cinnamic acid caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, m-coumaric and o-coumaric acid which possess antioxidant effects PON1 is readily inactivated by exogenous or endogenous oxidant agents Many studies have revealed the reduction of paraoxonase enzyme activity in different situations, resulting in diseases such as oxidative stress, diabetes and cardiovascular importantly coronary artery disease.

Reduction in paraoxonase activity of serum may be related to the elevation of lipid peroxide levels 1 , Atorvastatin that inhibits the cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A HMG-CoA reductase, is reported to increase the serum paraoxonase activity 22 , On the other hand, other studies failed to find any changes in the serum paraoxonase activity under statin administration Nevertheless, increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activity or DSE did not increase the TAOC in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to the untreated ones based on the ABTS radical reduction assay.

However, TAOC in hypercholesterolemic groups was significantly lower than the respective normal groups. These indicate that the hypercholesterolemic diet, apart from the DSE effects and atorvastatin efficacy, is responsible for the serum TAOC reduction. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DSE significantly increased the serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activity in hypercholesterolemic rats and DSE may be useful in decreasing symptoms of diseases related to the low activity of paraoxonase or overcoming diseases due to the increasing activity of paraoxonase such as OP poisoning.

Financial Disclosure: There is no conflict of interest. This article is part of the Pharm. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract DSE on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and continued for four weeks. Results: Administration of DSE significantly increased serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in treated hypercholesterolemic groups compared to untreated ones.

Conclusions: DSE increases serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. Keywords: Arylesterase, Aryldialkylphosphatase, Antioxidants, Rats. Background Three-gene family of PON was detected and evaluated, comprising different properties.

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methanolic date seed extract DSE on paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods 3. Plant Materials The date fruits were collected during the last stage of ripening process in which the dates look dehydrated Tamar stage , from Behbehan, Iran, and identified by Dr. Preparation of Extract Powdered date seeds were extracted after 72 hours of maceration in methanol.

Experimental Procedure At first, experiments were conducted in two groups of normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. Arylesterase Activity Assay Arylesterase activity was assayed according to the kit.

Statistical Analysis The ratio of mean differences in serum paraoxonase, arylesterase activities and TAOC between days 28 and 14 to day 14 were calculated and reported as follows.

Results 4. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Discussion It is obvious that high total cholesterol level is an important risk factor for development and progression of atherosclerosis. References 1. Pharmacological and dietary modulators of paraoxonase 1 PON1 activity and expression: the hunt goes on. Biochem Pharmacol.

Paraoxonase PON 1 as a biomarker of susceptibility for organophosphate toxicity. Aviram M. Introduction to paraoxonases. J Lipids. Role of paraoxonase 1 PON1 in organophosphate metabolism: implications in neurodegenerative diseases. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. The paraoxonases: role in human diseases and methodological difficulties in measurement. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. Pharmacological and lifestyle factors modulating serum paraoxonase-1 activity.

Mini Rev Med Chem. Modulation of paraoxonase PON1 activity. Effect of simvastatin therapy on paraoxonase activity and related lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemic patients.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Rosiglitazone modulates fasting and post-prandial paraoxonase 1 activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. The differentiating effect of glimepiride and glibenclamide on paraoxonase 1 and platelet-activating factor acetylohydrolase activity.

Life Sci. Serum paraoxonase PON1 55 and polymorphism and paraoxonase activity and concentration in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The effect of grape seed extracts on serum paraoxonase activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food. The antioxidant HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 PON1 attenuates diabetes development and stimulates beta-cell insulin release. A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits Phoenix dactylifera L.

Food Res Int. Nutritional and functional properties of dates: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Vayalil PK. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera Linn : an emerging medicinal food. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of selected fruit seeds. Food Chem. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds. Nutritional attributes. Date seeds are tough and need to be processed before being fed to animals. Potential constraints. Pesticide residues Dates are fumigated to kill insects, often with methyl bromide CH 3 Br Glasner et al.

Steroid compounds The presence of steroid compounds in date pits, notably estrone, progesterone and estriol, has been known since the s, though the actual effects of these compounds on sheep growth and reproduction have yet to be clearly demonstrated Barreveld, ; El-Gasim et al.

Cattle In , there was no recent research on the use of date pits in cattle feeding, even though such utilization is attested to in the literature for dairy and beef cattle Al-Wash et al. Sheep The optimal level of date pits in sheep diets is disputed, probably due to the large variety of experimental protocols used by researchers.

Dromedaries Raw date pits are an excellent slow release energy feed for camels during long desert journeys Barreveld, Broilers How actually valuable date pits are in broiler diets depends on the cost of energy and protein supplementation that their inclusion in the diet will require. Layers Little data is available on the use of date pits in layers. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Date palm seeds can be fed to tilapia fingerlings but only after processing affecting their composition and structure germination, fungi treatment.

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value. Date palm Phoenix dactylifera , pits. Aboul-Ela, S. Evaluating date pits as a waste product of food industries in feeding NZW rabbits. Date stone meal as a substitute for barley in chick rations.

Trinidad , Al-Asgah, N. Date palm seeds as food for carp Cyprinus carpio L. King Saud Univ. Aspects of the serum biochemistry, carcass quality and organoleptic characteristics of broilers fed alkali-treated date pits. The effect of partial replacement of maize by alkali-treated date pits on broiler growth, survival rate and economic returns.

Rural Dev. Study of different proportions of date stones in the ration for fattening Awassi lambs. Iraqi J. The use of ground date pits and Atriplex halimus as alternative feeds for sheep. Basic Appl. The use of date stones for feeding and fattening ruminant animals. Sodium hydroxide treatment of date pits. March, II Al-Yousef, Y. Apparent digestibility of discarded and date pits together with other agricultural by-products.

January Rajab, Vol. II Ali, K. Macerated dates and ground date stones as feeds for fattening sheep. Empire J. Reproductive hormonal status of rats treated with date pits. Food Chem. Evaluation of the use of raw and activated date pits as potential adsorbents for dye containing waters.

Process Biochemistry, 39 2 : Barreveld, W. Date palm products. Incorporating date pits Phoenix dactylifera and their sprouts in semi-purified diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. World Aquacult. Evaluating fungi-degraded date pits as a feed ingredient for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L..

Study of chemical composition of date stones for use in animal feed. Codex Alimentarius, Pesticides residues in Food and feed.

Methyl Bromide. Poultry production in hot climates. Ecocrop database. Nutritional value of date seeds for sheep. Study on the preparation of date seeds for animal feeding.

Possible hormonal activity of date pits and flesh fed to meat animals. The industrial use of the date palm residues: an eloquent example of sustainable development.

The use of date byproducts for fattening calves. I-Potentialities and traditional utilisation. In: Ben Salem, H. Date harvesting, packinghouse management and marketing aspects. In: Zaid, A. Arias-Jimenez, E. Date palm cultivation. FAO plant production and protection paper, rev. Effects of using date waste whole dates and date pits on performance, egg components and quality characteristics of Baladi Saudi and Leghorn laying hens..

Egyptian J. Feeds Hussein, A. The use of dates and date pits in broiler starter and finisher diets. Bioresource Technol. Marine Sci.

Evaluating utilization of ground date stone with or without Kemzyme in the diets of growing New Zealand rabbits. Nutritional value of whole dates and date pits in broiler rations. Pesticide residue analysis of date palm fruits by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry. Using date seed meal in Dandarawi laying hens and growing cockerels diets.. Assiut Vet. Economic value of date pits replaced with maize in broiler chicken Diet. Productive and reproductive performance of lactating buffaloes fed on rations containing different levels of date stone.

Proceedings of The 2nd Scientific Conf. Composition and nutritional value of dates and date parts as a result of trials on ruminants and pigs. Changes in the chemical composition of three cultivars of date seed during germination. Date Palm J. Dates and date pits as ingredients in broiler starting and Coturnix quail breeder diets. The effect of different levels of urea and date stones in the ration on its digestion and performance of Awassi lambs.

Zaghari, M. Estimation of metabolisable energy content of date pit and its effect on lipid and protein oxidation in broiler chicks. Food Agric. FAO Plant production and protection paper , Rev. FAO, Rome. Datasheet citation.

Image credits. Afifi, M. Trinidad , Al-Asgah, N. Al-Bowait, M. Al-Kinani, L. Al-Owaimer, A. Al-Wash, A. World Review of Animal Production, 18 3 : Al-Yousef, Y. Ali, K. Ali, B. Banat, F. Process Biochemistry, 39 2 : Barreveld, W.